Monday, September 30, 2019
Youth is not a time of life; it is a state of mind; it is not a matter of rosy cheeks, red lips and supple knees; it is a matter of the will, a quality of the imagination, a vigor of the emotions; it is the freshness of the deep springs of life. Youth means a temperamental predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the love of ease. This often exists in a man of 60 more than a boy of 20. Nobody grows old merely by a number of years. We grow old by deserting our ideals. Years may wrinkle the skin, but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul. Worry, fear, self-distrust bows the heart and turns the spirit back to dust. Whether 60 or 16, there is in every human beingÃ¢â¬â¢s heart the lure of wonders, the unfailing appetite for whatÃ¢â¬â¢s next and the joy of the game of living. In the center of your heart and my heart, there is a wireless station; so long as it receives messages of beauty, hope, courage and power from man and from the infinite, so long as you are young. When your aerials are down, and your spirit is covered with snows of cynicism and the ice of pessimism, then youÃ¢â¬â¢ve grown old, even at 20; but as long as your aerials are up, to catch waves of optimism, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s hope you may die young at 80. Ã · : Three Days to See(Excerpts) ( ) Three Days to See All of us have read thrilling stories in which the hero had only a limited and specified time to live. Sometimes it was as long as a year, sometimes as short as 24 hours. But always we were interested in discovering just how the doomed hero chose to spend his last days or his last hours. I speak, of course, of free men who have a choice, not condemned criminals whose sphere of activities is strictly delimited. Such stories set us thinking, wondering what we should do under similar circumstances. What events, what experiences, what associations should we crowd into those last hours as mortal beings, what regrets? Sometimes I have thought it would be an excellent rule to live each day as if we should die tomorrow. Such an attitude would emphasize sharply the values of life. We should live each day with gentleness, vigor and a keenness of appreciation which are often lost when time stretches before us in the constant panorama of more days and months and years to come. There are those, of course, who would adopt the Epicurean motto of Ã¢â¬Å"Eat, drink, and be merryÃ¢â¬ . But most people would be chastened by the certainty of impending death. In stories the doomed hero is usually saved at the last minute by some stroke of fortune, but almost always his sense of values is changed. He becomes more appreciative of the meaning of life and its permanent spiritual values. It has often been noted that those who live, or have lived, in the shadow of death bring a mellow sweetness to everything they do. Most of us, however, take life for granted. We know that one day we must die, but usually we picture that day as far in the future. When we are in buoyant health, death is all but unimaginable. We seldom think of it. The days stretch out in an endless vista. So we go about our petty tasks, hardly aware of our listless attitude toward life. The same lethargy, I am afraid, characterizes the use of all our faculties and senses. Only the deaf appreciate hearing, only the blind realize the manifold blessings that lie in sight. Particularly does this observation apply to those who have lost sight and hearing in adult life. But those who have never suffered impairment of sight or hearing seldom make the fullest use of these blessed faculties. Their eyes and ears take in all sights and sounds hazily, without concentration and with little appreciation. It is the same old story of not being grateful for what we have until we lose it, of not being conscious of health until we are ill. I have often thought it would be a blessing if each human being were stricken blind and deaf for a few days at some time during his early adult life. Darkness would make him more appreciative of sight; silence would teach him the joys of sound. Ã · :Companionship of Books ( ) Companionship of Books A man may usually be known by the books he reads as well as by the company he keeps; for there is a companionship of books as well as of men; and one should always live in the best company, whether it be of books or of men. A good book may be among the best of friends. It is the same today that it always was, and it will never change. It is the most patient and cheerful of companions. It does not turn its back upon us in times of adversity or distress. It always receives us with the same kindness; amusing and instructing us in youth, and comforting and consoling us in age. Men often discover their affinity to each other by the mutual love they have for a book just as two persons sometimes discover a friend by the admiration which both entertain for a third. There is an old proverb, Ã¢â¬ËLove me, love my dog. Ã¢â¬ But there is more wisdom in this:Ã¢â¬ Love me, love my book. Ã¢â¬ The book is a truer and higher bond of union. Men can think, feel, and sympathize with each other through their favorite author. They live in him together, and he in them. A good book is often the best urn of a life enshrining the best that life could think out; for the world of a manÃ¢â¬â¢s life is, for the most part, but the world of his thoughts. Thus the best books are treasuries of good words, the golden thoughts, which, remembered and cherished, become our constant companions and comforters. Books possess an essence of immortality. They are by far the most lasting products of human effort. Temples and statues decay, but books survive. Time is of no account with great thoughts, which are as fresh today as when they first passed through their authorÃ¢â¬â¢s minds, ages ago. What was then said and thought still speaks to us as vividly as ever from the printed page. The only effect of time have been to sift out the bad products; for nothing in literature can long survive e but what is really good. Books introduce us into the best society; they bring us into the presence of the greatest minds that have ever lived. We hear what they said and did; we see the as if they were really alive; we sympathize with them, enjoy with them, grieve with them; their experience becomes ours, and we feel as if we were in a measure actors with them in the scenes which they describe. The great and good do not die, even in this world. Embalmed in books, their spirits walk abroad. The book is a living voice. It is an intellect to which on still listens. Ã · :If I Rest,I Rust , If I Rest, I Rust The significant inscription found on an old keyÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"If I rest, I rustÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âwould be an excellent motto for those who are afflicted with the slightest bit of idleness. Even the most industrious person might adopt it with advantage to serve as a reminder that, if one allows his faculties to rest, like the iron in the unused key, they will soon show signs of rust and, ultimately, cannot do the work required of them. Those who would attain the heights reached and kept by great men must keep their faculties polished by constant use, so that they may unlock the doors of knowledge, the gate that guard the entrances to the professions, to science, art, literature, agricultureÃ¢â¬âevery department of human endeavor. Industry keeps bright the key that opens the treasury of achievement. If Hugh Miller, after toiling all day in a quarry, had devoted his evenings to rest and recreation, he would never have become a famous geologist. The celebrated mathematician, Edmund Stone, would never have published a mathematical dictionary, never have found the key to science of mathematics, if he had given his spare moments to idleness, had the little Scotch lad, Ferguson, allowed the busy brain to go to sleep while he tended sheep on the hillside instead of calculating the position of the stars by a string of beads, he would never have become a famous astronomer. Labor vanquishes allÃ¢â¬ânot inconstant, spasmodic, or ill-directed labor; but faithful, unremitting, daily effort toward a well-directed purpose. Just as truly as eternal vigilance is the price of liberty, so is eternal industry the price of noble and enduring success. Ã · :Ambition Ambition It is not difficult to imagine a world short of ambition. It would probably be a kinder world: with out demands, without abrasions, without disappointments. People would have time for reflection. Such work as they did would not be for themselves but for the collectivity. Competition would never enter in. conflict would be eliminated, tension become a thing of the past. The stress of creation would be at an end. Art would no longer be troubling, but purely celebratory in its functions. Longevity would be increased, for fewer people would die of heart attack or stroke caused by tumultuous endeavor. Anxiety would be extinct. Time would stretch on and on, with ambition long departed from the human heart. Ah, how unrelieved boring life would be! There is a strong view that holds that success is a myth, and ambition therefore a sham. Does this mean that success does not really exist? That achievement is at bottom empty? That the efforts of men and women are of no significance alongside the force of movements and events now not all success, obviously, is worth esteeming, nor all ambition worth cultivating. Which are and which are not is something one soon enough learns on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. But even the most cynical secretly admit that success exists; that achievement counts for a great deal; and that the true myth is that the actions of men and women are useless. To believe otherwise is to take on a point of view that is likely to be deranging. It is, in its implications, to remove all motives for competence, interest in attainment, and regard for posterity. We do not choose to be born. We do not choose our parents. We do not choose our historical epoch, the country of our birth, or the immediate circumstances of our upbringing. We do not, most of us, choose to die; nor do we choose the time or conditions of our death. But within all this realm of choicelessness, we do choose how we shall live: courageously or in cowardice, honorably or dishonorably, with purpose or in drift. We decide what is important and what is trivial in life. We decide that what makes us significant is either what we do or what we refuse to do. But no matter how indifferent the universe may be to our choices and decisions, these choices and decisions are ours to make. We decide. We choose. And as we decide and choose, so are our lives formed. In the end, forming our own destiny is what ambition is about. Ã · :What I have Lived for What I Have Lived For Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. These passions, like great winds, have blown me hither and thither, in a wayward course, over a deep ocean of anguish, reaching to the very verge of despair. I have sought love, first, because it brings ecstasyÃ¢â¬âecstasy so great that I would often have sacrificed all the rest of my life for a few hours for this joy. I have sought it, next, because it relieves lonelinessÃ¢â¬âthat terrible loneliness in which one shivering consciousness looks over the rim of the world into the cold unfathomable lifeless abyss. I have sought it, finally, because in the union of love I have seen, in a mystic miniature, the prefiguring vision of the heaven that saints and poets have imagined. This is what I sought, and though it might seem too good for human life, this is whatÃ¢â¬âat lastÃ¢â¬âI have found. With equal passion I have sought knowledge. I have wished to understand the hearts of men. I have wished to know why the stars shine. And I have tried to apprehend the Pythagorean power by which number holds sway above the flux. A little of this, but not much, I have achieved. Love and knowledge, so far as they were possible, led upward toward the heavens. But always it brought me back to earth. Echoes of cries of pain reverberate in my heart. Children in famine, victims tortured by oppressors, helpless old people a hated burden to their sons, and the whole world of loneliness, poverty, and pain make a mockery of what human life should be. I long to alleviate the evil, but I cannot, and I too suffer. This has been my life. I have found it worth living, and would gladly live it again if the chance were offered me. Ã · :When Love Beckons You When Love Beckons You When love beckons to you, follow him, though his ways are hard and steep. And when his wings enfold you, yield to him, though the sword hidden among his pinions may wound you. And when he speaks to you, believe in him, though his voice may shatter your dreams as the north wind lays waste the garden. For even as love crowns you so shall he crucify you. Even as he is for your growth so is he for your pruning. Even as he ascends to your height and caresses your tenderest branches that quiver in the sun, so shall he descend to our roots and shake them in their clinging to the earth. But if, in your fear, you would seek only loveÃ¢â¬â¢s peace and loveÃ¢â¬â¢s pleasure, then it is better for you that you cover your nakedness and pass out of loveÃ¢â¬â¢s threshing-floor, into the seasonless world where you shall laugh, but not all of your laughter, and weep, but not all of your tears. Love gives naught but it self and takes naught but from itself. Love possesses not, nor would it be possessed, for love is sufficient unto love. Love has no other desire but to fulfill itself. But if you love and must have desires, let these be your desires: To melt and be like a running brook that sings its melody to the night. To know the pain of too much tenderness. To be wounded by your own understanding of love; And to bleed willingly and joyfully. To wake at dawn with a winged heart and give thanks for another day of loving; To rest at the noon hour and meditate loveÃ¢â¬â¢s ecstasy; To return home at eventide with gratitude; And then to sleep with a payer for the beloved in your heart and a song of praise upon your lips. Ã · :The Road to Success The Road to Success It is well that young men should begin at the beginning and occupy the most subordinate positions. Many of the leading businessmen of Pittsburgh had a serious responsibility thrust upon them at the very threshold of their career. They were introduced to the broom, and spent the first hours of their business lives sweeping out the office. I notice we have janitors and janitresses now in offices, and our young men unfortunately miss that salutary branch of business education. But if by chance the professional sweeper is absent any morning, the boy who has the genius of the future partner in him will not hesitate to try his hand at the broom. It does not hurt the newest comer to sweep out the office if necessary. I was one of those sweepers myself. Assuming that you have all obtained employment and are fairly started, my advice to you is Ã¢â¬Å"aim highÃ¢â¬ . I would not give a fig for the young man who does not already see himself the partner or the head of an important firm. Do not rest content for a moment in your thoughts as head clerk, or foreman, or general manager in any concern, no matter how extensive. Say to yourself, Ã¢â¬Å"My place is at the top. Ã¢â¬ Be king in your dreams. And here is the prime condition of success, the great secret: concentrate your energy, thought, and capital exclusively upon the business in which you are engaged. Having begun in one line, resolve to fight it out on that line, to lead in it, adopt every improvement, have the best machinery, and know the most about it. The concerns which fail are those which have scattered their capital, which means that they have scattered their brains also. They have investments in this, or that, or the other, here there, and everywhere. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t put all your eggs in one basket. Ã¢â¬ is all wrong. I tell you to Ã¢â¬Å"put all your eggs in one basket, and then watch that basket. Ã¢â¬ Look round you and take notice, men who do that not often fail. It is easy to watch and carry the one basket. It is trying to carry too many baskets that breaks most eggs in this country. He who carries three baskets must put one on his head, which is apt to tumble and trip him up. One fault of the American businessman is lack of concentration. To summarize what I have said: aim for the highest; never enter a bar room; do not touch liquor, or if at all only at meals; never speculate; never indorse beyond your surplus cash fund; make the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s interest yours; break orders always to save owners; concentrate; put all your eggs in one basket, and watch that basket; expenditure always within revenue; lastly, be not impatient, for as Emerson says, Ã¢â¬Å"no one can cheat you out of ultimate success but yourselves. Ã¢â¬ Ã · :On Meeting the Celebrated On Meeting the Celebrated I have always wondered at the passion many people have to meet the celebrated. The prestige you acquire by being able to tell your friends that you know famous men proves only that you are yourself of small account. The celebrated develop a technique to deal with the persons they come across. They show the world a mask, often an impressive on, but take care to conceal their real selves. They play the part that is expected from them, and with practice learn to play it very well, but you are stupid if you think that this public performance of theirs corresponds with the man within. I have been attached, deeply attached, to a few people; but I have been interested in men in general not for their own sakes, but for the sake of my work. I have not, as Kant enjoined, regarded each man as an end in himself, but as material that might be useful to me as a writer. I have been more concerned with the obscure than with the famous. They are more often themselves. They have had no need to create a figure to protect themselves from the world or to impress it. Their idiosyncrasies have had more chance to develop in the limited circle of their activity, and since they have never been in the public eye it has never occurred to them that they have anything to conceal. They display their oddities because it has never struck them that they are odd. And after all it is with the common run of men that we writers have to deal; kings, dictators, commercial magnates are from our point of view very unsatisfactory. To write about them is a venture that has often tempted writers, but the failure that has attended their efforts shows that such beings are too exceptional to form a proper ground for a work of art. They cannot be made real. The ordinary is the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s richer field. Its unexpectedness, its singularity, its infinite variety afford unending material. The great man is too often all of a piece; it is the little man that is a bundle of contradictory elements. He is inexhaustible. You never come to the end of the surprises he has in store for you. For my part I would much sooner spend a month on a desert island with a veterinary surgeon than with a prime minister. Ã · :The 50-Percent Theory of Life The 50-Percent Theory of Life I believe in the 50-percent theory. Half the time things are better than normal; the other half, they re worse. I believe life is a pendulum swing. It takes time and experience to understand what normal is, and that gives me the perspective to deal with the surprises of the future. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s benchmark the parameters: yes, I will die. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve dealt with the deaths of both parents, a best friend, a beloved boss and cherished pets. Some of these deaths have been violent, before my eyes, or slow and agonizing. Bad stuff, and it belongs at the bottom of the scale. Then there are those high points: romance and marriage to the right person; having a child and doing those Dad things like coaching my sonÃ¢â¬â¢s baseball team, paddling around the creek in the boat while heÃ¢â¬â¢s swimming with the dogs, discovering his compassion so deep it manifests even in his kindness to snails, his imagination so vivid he builds a spaceship from a scattered pile of Legos. But there is a vast meadow of life in the middle, where the bad and the good flip-flop acrobatically. This is what convinces me to believe in the 50-percent theory. One spring I planted corn too early in a bottomland so flood-prone that neighbors laughed. I felt chagrined at the wasted effort. Summer turned brutalÃ¢â¬âthe worst heat wave and drought in my lifetime. The air-conditioned died; the well went dry; the marriage ended; the job lost; the money gone. I was living lyrics from a country tuneÃ¢â¬âmusic I loathed. Only a surging Kansas City Royals team buoyed my spirits. Looking back on that horrible summer, I soon understood that all succeeding good things merely offset the bad. Worse than normal wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t last long. I am owed and savor the halcyon times. The reinvigorate me for the next nasty surprise and offer assurance that can thrive. The 50-percent theory even helps me see hope beyond my RoyalsÃ¢â¬â¢ recent slump, a field of struggling rookies sown so that some year soon we can reap an October harvest. For that on blistering summer, the ground moisture was just right, planting early allowed pollination before heat withered the tops, and the lack of rain spared the standing corn from floods. That winter my crib overflowed with cornÃ¢â¬âfat, healthy three-to-a-stalk ears filled with kernels from heel to tipÃ¢â¬âwhile my neighborsÃ¢â¬â¢ fields yielded only brown, empty husks. Although plantings past may have fallen below the 50-percent expectation, and they probably will again in the future, I am still sustained by the crop that flourishes during the drought. Ã · :What is Your Recovery Rate? What is Your Recovery Rate? What is your recovery rate? How long does it take you to recover from actions and behaviors that upset you? Minutes? Hours? Days? Weeks? The longer it takes you to recover, the more influence that incident has on your actions, and the less able you are to perform to your personal best. In a nutshell, the longer it takes you to recover, the weaker you are and the poorer your performance. You are well aware that you need to exercise to keep the body fit and, no doubt, accept that a reasonable measure of health is the speed in which your heart and respiratory system recovers after exercise. Likewise the faster you let go of an issue that upsets you, the faster you return to an equilibrium, the healthier you will be. The best example of this behavior is found with professional sportspeople. They know that the faster they can forget an incident or missd opportunity and get on with the game, the better their performance. In fact, most measure the time it takes them to overcome and forget an incident in a game and most reckon a recovery rate of 30 seconds is too long! Imagine yourself to be an actor in a play on the stage. Your aim is to play your part to the best of your ability. You have been given a script and at the end of each sentence is a ful stop. Each time you get to the end of the sentence you start a new one and although the next sentence is related to the last it is not affected by it. Your job is to deliver each sentence to the best of your ability. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t live your life in the past! Learn to live in the present, to overcome the past. Stop the past from influencing your daily life. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t allow thoughts of the past to reduce your personal best. Stop the past from interfering with your life. Learn to recover quickly. Remember: Rome wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t built in a day. Reflect on your recovery rate each day. Every day before you go to bed, look at your progress. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t lie in bed saying to you, Ã¢â¬Å"I did that wrong. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I should have done better there. Ã¢â¬ No. look at your day and note when you made an effort to place a full stop after an incident. This is a success. You are taking control of your life. Remember this is a step by step process. This is not a make-over. You are undertaking real change here. Your aim: reduce the time spent in recovery. The way forward? Live in the present. Not in the precedent. Ã · :Clear Your Mental Space Clear Your Mental Space Think about the last time you felt a negative emotionÃ¢â¬âlike stress, anger, or frustration. What was going through your mind as you were going through that negativity? Was your mind cluttered with thoughts? Or was it paralyzed, unable to think? The next time you find yourself in the middle of a very stressful time, or you feel angry or frustrated, stop. Yes, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s right, stop. Whatever youÃ¢â¬â¢re doing, stop and sit for one minute. While youÃ¢â¬â¢re sitting there, completely immerse yourself in the negative emotion. Allow that emotion to consume you. Allow yourself one minute to truly feel that emotion. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t cheat yourself here. Take the entire minuteÃ¢â¬âbut only one minuteÃ¢â¬âto do nothing else but feel that emotion. When the minute is over, ask yourself, Ã¢â¬Å"Am I wiling to keep holding on to this negative emotion as I go through the rest of the day? Ã¢â¬ Once youÃ¢â¬â¢ve allowed yourself to be totally immersed in the emotion and really fell it, you will be surprised to find that the emotion clears rather quickly. If you feel you need to hold on to the emotion for a little longer, that is OK. Allow yourself another minute to feel the emotion. When you feel youÃ¢â¬â¢ve had enough of the emotion, ask yourself if youÃ¢â¬â¢re willing to carry that negativity with you for the rest of the day. If not, take a deep breath. As you exhale, release all that negativity with your breath. This exercise seems simpleÃ¢â¬âalmost too simple. But, it is very effective. By allowing that negative emotion the space to be truly felt, you are dealing with the emotion rather than stuffing it down and trying not to feel it. You are actually taking away the power of the emotion by giving it the space and attention it needs. When you immerse yourself in the emotion, and realize that it is only emotion, it loses its control. You can clear your head and proceed with your task. Try it. Next time youÃ¢â¬â¢re in the middle of a negative emotion, give yourself the space to feel the emotion and see what happens. Keep a piece of paper with you that says the following: Stop. Immerse for one minute. Do I want to keep this negativity? Breath deep, exhale, release. Move on! This will remind you of the steps to the process. Remember; take the time you need to really immerse yourself in the emotion. Then, when you feel youÃ¢â¬â¢ve felt it enough, release itÃ¢â¬âreally let go of it. You will be surprised at how quickly you can move on from a negative situation and get to what you really want to do! Ã · :Be Happy Be Happy! Ã¢â¬Å"The days that make us happy make us wise. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â-John Masefield when I first read this line by EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s Poet Laureate, it startled me. What did Masefield mean? Without thinking about it much, I had always assumed that the opposite was true. But his sober assurance was arresting. I could not forget it. Finally, I seemed to grasp his meaning and realized that here was a profound observation. The wisdom that happiness makes possible lies in clear perception, not fogged by anxiety nor dimmed by despair and boredom, and without the blind spots caused by fear. Active happinessÃ¢â¬ânot mere satisfaction or contentment Ã¢â¬âoften comes suddenly, like an April shower or the unfolding of a bud. Then you discover what kind of wisdom has accompanied it. The grass is greener; bird songs are sweeter; the shortcomings of your friends are more understandable and more forgivable. Happiness is like a pair of eyeglasses correcting your spiritual vision. Nor are the insights of happiness limited to what is near around you. Unhappy, with your thoughts turned in upon your emotional woes, your vision is cut short as though by a wall. Happy, the wall crumbles. The long vista is there for the seeing. The ground at your feet, the world about youÃ¢â¬â-people, thoughts, emotions, pressuresÃ¢â¬âare now fitted into the larger scene. Everything assumes a fairer proportion. And here is the beginning of wisdom. Ã · :The Goodness of life The Goodness of Life Though there is much to be concerned about, there is far, far more for which to be thankful. Though lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s goodness can at times be overshadowed, it is never outweighed. For every single act that is senselessly destructive, there are thousands more small, quiet acts of love, kindness and compassion. For every person who seeks to hurt, there are many, many more who devote their lives to helping and to healing. There is goodness to life that cannot be denied. In the most magnificent vistas and in the smallest details, look closely, for that goodness always comes shining through. There si no limit to the goodness of life. It grows more abundant with each new encounter. The more you experience and appreciate the goodness of life, the more there is to be lived. Even when the cold winds blow and the world seems to be cov ered in foggy shadows, the goodness of life lives on. Open your eyes, open your heart, and you will see that goodness is everywhere. Though the goodness of life seems at times to suffer setbacks, it always endures. For in the darkest moment it becomes vividly clear that life is a priceless treasure. And so the goodness of life is made even stronger by the very things that would oppose it. Time and time again when you feared it was gone forever you found that the goodness of life was really only a moment away. Around the next corner, inside every moment, the goodness of life is there to surprise and delight you. Take a moment to let the goodness of life touch your spirit and calm your thoughts. Then, share your good fortune with another. For the goodness of life grows more and more magnificent each time it is given away. Though the problems constantly scream for attention and the conflicts appear to rage ever stronger, the goodness of life grows stronger still, quietly, peacefully, with more purpose and meaning than ever before. Ã · :Facing the Enemies Within Facing the Enemies Within We are not born with courage, but neither are we born with fear. Maybe some of our fears are brought on by your own experiences, by what someone has told you, by what youÃ¢â¬â¢ve read in the papers. Some fears are valid, like walking alone in a bad part of town at two oÃ¢â¬â¢clock in the morning. But once you learn to avoid that situation, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t need to live in fear of it. Fears, even the most basic ones, can totally destroy our ambitions. Fear can destroy fortunes. Fear can destroy relationships. Fear, if left unchecked, can destroy our lives. Fear is one of the many enemies lurking inside us. Let me tell you about five of the other enemies we face from within. The first enemy that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to destroy before it destroys you is indifference. What a tragic disease this is! Ã¢â¬Å"Ho-hum, let it slide. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll just drift along. Ã¢â¬ HereÃ¢â¬â¢s one problem with drifting: you canÃ¢â¬â¢t drift your way to the to of the mountain. The second enemy we face is indecision. Indecision is the thief of opportunity and enterprise. It will steal your chances for a better future. Take a sword to this enemy. The third enemy inside is doubt. Sure, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s room for healthy skepticism. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t believe everything. But you also canÃ¢â¬â¢t let doubt take over. Many people doubt the past, doubt the future, doubt each other, doubt the government, doubt the possibilities nad doubt the opportunities. Worse of all, they doubt themselves. IÃ¢â¬â¢m telling you, doubt will destroy your life and your chances of success. It will empty both your bank account and your heart. Doubt is an enemy. Go after it. Get rid of it. The fourth enemy within is worry. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve all got to worry some. Just donÃ¢â¬â¢t let conquer you. Instead, let it alarm you. Worry can be useful. If you step off the curb in New York City and a taxi is coming, youÃ¢â¬â¢ve.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
1. How do you set a hypothesis for this study? Null Hypothesis, Ho: Rasna image not recaptured in the market. Alternate Hypothesis, Ha: Rasna image recaptured and brand is revamped in the market. 2. Explain various research processes involved in the study. The various research processes involved in the study are: a. They discovered untapped potential of soft drink concentrate by Market Research. b. Then they tapped the market by launching the Rasna and planned ad campaigns to increase the acceptability. c. They researched impact of the ad campaign on the mind of the customers. d. They also researched about the market share after the entry of Pepsi and Coke. e. After the decline of Rasna, the discovered new problems regarding customer changing needs (Problem Identification). f. Survey: a survey was conducted by AC-Nielsen to measure the consumer confidence in Rasna. 3. In your opinion what may be the perceived benefits of a new ad campaign? The new ad campaign has many perceived benefits which helped in the revamping of Rasna in the market. They are: a. The new brand symbol-Ã¢â¬Ëa leafÃ¢â¬â¢, symbolized freshness and naturalness which improved product acceptability among customers. . It targeted all segments based on age with the new tagline and the logo. This changed the previous perceptions about the product of being children oriented. c. The product also got very popular amongst children and hence, helped in increasing the market share. d. It established Rasna as a trustworthy product because of being endorsed by kids in the ads. e. It influenced the bu ying behavior of the parents as the ad campaign improved the product acceptability. f. A celebrity brand ambassador helped the brand connect to masses better. g. Customer involvement (slogan contests) also helps in gaining customer loyalty for a long term. h. Displaying a complete range of Rasna and highlighting it for all seasons makes it more value-added. 4. Comment on the list of promotional activities undertaken during the revamping process. Impact of promotional activities are: a. Double split technique- The Ã¢â¬ËEk ka DoÃ¢â¬â¢ concept targeted the prospective customers to provide them a trial pack and also portrayed it as a ready to use product. It also was affordable to lower sections of the society. . New Flavours- Introducing new flavours was another good promotional strategy to add some differentiation to the products to increase the sales. c. New Retailing Strategy- It helps in increasing the distribution channels of the products and targeting more and more customers. d. Slogan Contests- It enhanced the customer involvement with the product and helps in gaining long term customer relationship and loyalty. e. Celebrity Endorseme nts- The celebrity endorsements help in connecting with masses and attracts the attention of the customers.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
While watching the video, this video came in my mind again and again, and it would be most suitable to talk about this in this paper. After a thorough research, it could be found out that the debate regarding which market is bigger and better has been up for long but talking about my perception and as per the proofs with me, the bond market is undoubtedly greater than the stock exchange. There are some reasons for proving this assertion (Cheng, 2010). Firstly, let us talk about the size of each of these markets and after that, we can talk about other aspects of these two markets. As of today, the bond market is estimated to be more than mind blowing $82 trillion whereas on the other hand stock market is estimated to be around $40-$50 trillion. This estimated evaluation alone puts the bond market in the front seat as it is more than twice the size of the stock market which speaks volumes about the value of the bond market. Another important aspect is that bond market has a higher and larger number of issuers than the stock market. The different segments of issuers range from corporate, government, municipal, funding; mortgage supported, etc. Whereas the stock market has issuers from a particular set of corporate sector panies and for example, in the United States of America, there are around 17,000 enterprises of the public sector. One thing which cannot be neglected is that stock market is undoubtedly more influential on sentiments. Now for example, if someone asks what is the key indicator for the stock market? They will get an apt reply S&P 500 or Dow most probably but on asking the same question for a bond market most of the people would remain clueless (e.g.,. Indexes such as Merrill Lynch Domestic Master) this gives the stock market a wider and broader voice and reach. Now once that has been discussed, as per my assumption bond market remains more powerful and influential than the stock market. The reason for saying so is that bond markets have a stable and fixed return guaranteed and hence, they are more predictable. Now if the yields are naturally high, then their does not generate a need for investing time and one in stocks. There is no similar risk reward. But yes, definitely if the yields are quite low in bonds then it would be wiser to switch to stocks. This is what gives the bond market the advantage as they are predictable and the customers can switch as per their ease but this does not work so smoothly in stock markets, and one does not have the privilege to predict stocks, and they are much more volatile. Hence, it can be said that this analysis is not a clear or high-end research work but still practically it is quite apt, and if this question is asked personally then definitely the answer would be that bond markets are much stronger and influential than the stock markets (Staff, 1995). It is also imperative to understand that both bond and stock markets are closely webbed, and most of the major stakeholders have a good hold in both these markets and keep shifting their funds from one to another as per the requirements. The stock market will always remain tempting and glamorous amidst the general masses but yes no doubt bond market will have greater influence as it es with the benefit of stability and guaranteed returns and attracts more institutional cash. This question has been pondering for a longer period but after watching the video, it certainly incited me to write about this issue the very first time when this question came across was when the opposition of Labour party in the UK accused the governing party of the Conservative party of giving away favours to its hedge fund managers. By the year 2015 since 2010, more than fifty percent of the cream layer of these hedge funds had donated their money to the Conservative party which when totalled estimates around Euro ten million. Since then and in past also, these hedge fund managers have been recognized as experts in investment skills and also known for their wealth. But how do these experts of investment work? Let us see in the subsequent sections. Well, it is peculiar to understand that rather than being recognized as an asset class, they are more correctly defined by the structure possessed by them. Hedge funds have a long history, and it all started when in the 1940's a man named Alfred Winslow Jones had set up an investment structure which helped him to bet for the fall as well as the rise of the prices and charge a small fee as his performance fee. It again got a boost in the late 1990's especially when George Soros speculation forced sterling out of the mechanism of the exchange rate, and he was dubbed as the man who broke the England bank (Clarke, 2007). Now talking about hedge funds in detail, they can be called as the pots of money which are opened or revealed only to a specific set of investors who usually use a set of plex instruments and strategies. In the beginning, they were assigned the job to produce an absolute or positive return in the market, and this had to be done by betting on falling prices and also for long shots by relying on the market for rising prices. Now, for example, a hedge fund can bet on BP, which is a big giant pany in the sector of petroleum and oil by buying its shares and on the other hand shorting the market. This short allows the hedge fund to bet on an individual pany and at the same time insulating the fund from the bigger risk of taking a loss due to a big decline in the market. More often than not, hedge funds try to exploit the small mispricing of the market which can pay off in a handsome amount only and only if the best are all leveraged. Most of the fund try and magnify their resources by the help of borrowed money. It is peculiar to notice that this approached can be applied by the hedge fund owners for different types of markets ranging from shares, mergers, currencies and equity (Economist, 2015). To reflect the higher skill set, fund managers charge more than the mutual fund managers. Conventionally these hedge fund managers earn a Ã¢â¬Å"two and twenty" i.e. a 2% annual charge from the capital which is under management and a performance fee of twenty percent from the profits earned and this is the reason why so many hedge fund managers are rich as they get a handsome amount for the duties they impart (Gad, 2013). But now a lot of things have been changing as the regulators are keeping a closer eye on these managers and even the investors have started demanding for much lower fees especially due to recent performances with average results from these managers. Hence, in the end, it can be said that bond markets are more important than the stock market if not on scientific research methods then at least as per the practical and available arguments. Secondly, the hedge fund owners have been getting a lot of money because of the policy of two plus twenty which gives them handsome amount of payback Cheng, L. (2010, August 12).Ã Which is more important Ã¢â¬â the stock market or the bond market?Ã Retrieved July 3, 2016, from https://larrycheng /2010/08/11/which-is-more-important-the-stock-market-or-the-bond-market/ Clarke, M. (2007, March 27). How hedge funds work.Ã Investing. Retrieved from https://www.thisismoney.co.uk/money/investing/article-1600380/How-hedge-funds-work.html Economic Importance of the Corporate Bond Markets. (2014). Retrieved July 3, 2016, from file:///C:/Users/HP/Desktop/New%20folder/Corporate%20Bond%20Markets%20March%202013.pdf Economist, T. (2015, March 30).Ã How hedge funds work. Retrieved July 3, 2016, from https://www.economist /blogs/economist-explains/2015/03/economist-explains-16 Ferguson, N.Ã Ascent of MoneyÃ Retrieved from Furlong, M., & Co-founder. (2015, February 17).Ã Hedge fund investing overview: What you need to know. Retrieved July 3, 2016, from All Posts, https://www.slicedinvesting /learning/finance/hedge-fund-investing-overview-need-know Gad, S. (2013, October 22). What are hedge funds?Ã Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes /sites/investopedia/2013/10/22/what-are-hedge-funds/ Staff, M. F. (1995).Ã 5 bond market facts you need to know -- the motley fool. Retrieved July 3, 2016, from https://www.fool /knowledge-center/5-bond-market-facts-you-need-to-know.aspx
Friday, September 27, 2019
Interpretation of Hamlet - Term Paper Example So, Hamlet becomes the object of counter revenge, Laertes seeking requital for the murder of his father. By the last act of the play, after his adventures at sea, Hamlet is utterly convinced of the rightness of his cause and necessity of killing Claudius, whom he describes as a cancer in society. He himself sees as a humble instrument of heaven, and to fail his duty in removing that cancer would be at the peril of his own soul. Hamlet ends in Victory and failure. The possibility that a man has been picked out to do a deed which society condemns but which a higher, divine authority sanctions is balanced against the possibility that Ghost led Hamlet into delusion and error, and bewildered him till he died. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet falls in the category of revenge play. It is called so as he has to avenge the death of his father whom he believes, has been murdered. This seems to be confirmed by the ghost as well. Is the presence of Ghost a hallucination or reality, it could never be confirmed but ghost gives Hamlet a motive, motive to avenge for his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. His fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death is a shock to him, when he arrives home he finds his mother already married to Claudius, his uncle and assuming the Thorne. Everything appears fishy to Hamlet .He is unable to understand this fact how his own mother could haste into new marriage bed when his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral ground is still fresh .There is no one to tell him the truth he cannot trust anyone even his own mother. Hamlet has no other way to extract the truth but to feign madness. A theme is defined as a central idea, which a literary works convey. There are various themes that run in Hamlet. The first theme that is found in this work of Shakespeare is the Revenge. Hamlet is at the core a revenge tragedy. It is his desire for the vengeance that leads to his down fall. The revenge tragedy was first introduced in Greece and on Elizabethan revenge tragedies we find large influence of Seneca, a Roman P laywright. A revenge play revolves around the crime committed. The crime is essentially committed but the culprit is unpunished by the standard laws of justice. Now, someone needs to take this responsibility and when Ghost of the king confirms Hamlet about the unjust happening, Hamlet rouse up for vengeance. Another theme is the complexity of action. The action is present in every revenge play but in Hamlet it becomes intricate because the protagonist undergoes a series of thought before performing any action. He is affected by rational and emotional considerations. He thinks too ethically and he broods on the consequence of his action. But when he prefers to act he does it blindly and recklessly .His dilemma is to be or not to be (Act III, Scene II).It is this impasse that makes him a greatest tragic hero. The third theme that Hamlet deals with is the mystery of Death. Throughout the play Hamlet ponders on the idea of death. He thinks about death and the spiritual aftermath. He is so preoccupied with the entire idea that he starts thinking about his own death. He is frustrated of the world around him and ponders suicide but what stops him is this question-Is suicide legitimate in Christianity? He fears if he commits suicide then he would be condemned to eternal sufferings of the hell. His misery is that he is unable to reconcile with his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s sudden death, his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s indifference and his uncleÃ¢â¬â¢s apathy. His sufferings are endless. Theme of corruption is
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Write about the picture and the artist - Essay Example This is evident from the main objectÃ¢â¬â¢s piece protruding piece from the right and casts shadow just beneath it in relation to both the man and machine like forms found in the background. Diverse forms comprising this artwork their placements occupy the background whereby most of them seem to concentrate in the right side corner. This creates a negative space between the viewer and the main objects. Besides, there are scattered snow like objects characterizing the space between the viewer and the background. These objects and those forming the portraitÃ¢â¬â¢s ground do not appear as if the painter utilized brush, but formed them by Ã¢â¬Å"ripping offÃ¢â¬ technique after applying paint. Hence, revealing underlying paints but via forming patches, which gives the ground snow like forms, scattered in the entire forefront space. The background objectsÃ¢â¬â¢ colors exhibit bold and heavy brush strokes giving them their true colors except the protruding piece that has a grey color. The protruding image seems as if the painter after applying paint embarked on Ã¢â¬Å"ripping offÃ¢â¬ method, which he utilized to create the forefront objects. In this image, Clyfford stillÃ¢â¬â¢s portrait via his painting offers the audience adequate information meant to predict the time and season of the day. The snow-like objects confirm this was a summer day and in the afternoon whereby the latter depiction is evident from the long objectÃ¢â¬â¢s shadow cast beneath it. The entire artworkÃ¢â¬â¢s objects and incorporation of colors gives a feeling of an ordinary atmosphere in the countryside with its normal on goings. This is evident from the busy man undertaking his activities. In addition, the depiction of varied agricultural machines emphasizes societyÃ¢â¬â¢s daily on goings. Clyfford despite being born in Dakota, he spent 35 years of his early life in Eastern Washington and Alberta (WÃ ¼nsche & Crowther 135). ClyffordÃ¢â¬â¢s parents were farmers while staying in Alberta, whereby these settings influenced
Alternative Ways of Serving Arrest Warrants - Assignment Example Many occurrences have been witnessed where such attempts to serve people with the arrest warrants has ended up causing violence, harm and death to the officers serving the warrants or to the recipients themselves. When the officers go to serve the individuals concerned with such arrest warrants, the individuals may choose to lock the offices out of their residence, so that they do not receive the warrants. The individuals can also opt to harm the officers serving them with the warrants or even harm themselves to ensure they are not arrested. Non-reception of such arrest warrants would mean that the individuals do not appear in court to answer the charges against them. Currently, many instances where individuals have attempted to block the officers from serving them with arrest warrants have been reported. Therefore, there is a need to seek for alternative ways to serve the concerned people with such warrants of arrest. In light of the above, such alternatives such as serving the arre st warrants to people through messages to their phones and E-mails should be applied. This is helpful in ensuring that the officers serving the arrest warrants do not necessarily have to go to the residence of the individuals concerned. These alternatives can save time and cost, while alleviating the risks associated with presenting the warrants to the physical address. Worth noting, however, is the fact that the courts may not recognize such methods. This limits the alternatives open, leaving only the physical presentation of the warrant as the only practical method.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Acoustic emission - Essay Example nown as AE sensors and the substance is normally left un-impacted since the energy emanates from the location of the occurrence and therefore there are no requirements for any energy from the outside environment (Jolly, 78). One of the most powerful means used in ascertaining the substanceÃ¢â¬â¢s (those succumbed with stress) internal alterations and tendencies is the acoustic emission (AE) testing. The tool basically an efficient method of determining the changes caused from the breaking of fibers, cracks elongations, other instances of on-going destruction taking place in Substances that are stressed, and so on, by simply detecting and changing into electric impulses these waves of sound produced. In other words, this is simply to allude that substances which are under some stress usually scream or talk and the AE testing tool comes in handy in Ã¢â¬ËlisteningÃ¢â¬â¢ to these sounds and noises (Scruby, 124). The pioneer AE testing was performed by the U.S Navy in 1961 in the industry of the Aerospace. The goal of this study (hydrostatic testing) was to determine the Polaris rocketÃ¢â¬â¢s efficiency and a decision was later struck to employ equipment for the analysis of the level of sound, a tape recorder and contact microphones upon the detection of sounds that were audible. Additionally, at the Testing Station for the National Reactor in the onset months of 1965, the AE was successfully put into use by surveyors who were striving to find ways of ascertaining the nuclear reactorsÃ¢â¬â¢ coolant losses. From that time onwards, the acoustic emission has been used with much success in monitoring things such as the wear of tools, wears in engines, failures in civil structures, growth of fatigue, the integrity of structures and the escalation of tear in laminates of composite kinds (Scruby, 200). Changes in temperature, when welding is taking place, usually cause between the base material and the weld stresses where in certain instances there are observed small cracks. In 1969, Dr.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
WSJ - Assignment Example In certain cases, companies try to enjoy some sort of relaxation from the government when they ignore the legal regulations. The article provides evidence of few companies that fell under the scanner (Palazzolo, 2012). Companies often have to face penalties when caught under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. The problem of bribery has spread to every sort of industry. The article provides evidence on the diversity of the problem. The companies have to make arrangements for funds to conduct the investigations. The time requires for the companies to tighten up the control of subsidiaries. The companies have to face financial crunch as the expansion process suffers due to lack of funds. A major proportion of funds are channelized to conduct the investigations; the resultant being dwarf companies. The companies involve themselves in such type of investigations and handover the documents to the government with the hope they might be exempted from the penalties or will be charged with lighter penalties. The companies of the U.S. are leading on the list of companies under bribes case. To deal with the problem, companies will have to engage themselves in taking some appropriate measures. The anti-bribery policies of the organizations shall provide the guidance on the process of conducting the business in fair fashion. The anti corruption program compliance shall take into consideration the numerous reporting and certification controls on monitoring. The program can encompass a critical education component which can be web based, as well as in-person training. In order to raise the overall awareness, anti bribery audits can be conducted on a periodic basis. Such audits will detect the potential misconducts and any ignorance of the laws of corruption or the policies of the organization. The organization needs to assess all the business units for the associated risks in corruption. The audit can be
Monday, September 23, 2019
The News Media Characteristics - Research Paper Example The aim of this investment is to furnish free, dependable, faultless, boundless and important data that a vote based system requires. Participatory news coverage is a notch up, with eminent wonder in which there is next to zero publication oversight or formal journalistic workflow managing the choices of a staff. Rather, it is the consequence of numerous concurrent, disseminated discussions that either bloom or rapidly decay in the Web's informal organization. While the eruption of weblogs is a later wonder, the thought of taking advantage of your group of onlookers for new views or transforming book lovers into correspondents or reporters is definitely not. Weblogs or writes as they are generally known, are the most dynamic and amazing type of this support reporting. These individually distributed frameworks have offered ascent to a sensation that shows the markings of unrest by giving anybody with the right ability and vigour the capability to be heard far and wide on the Web. They are redesigned online diaries, with converse sequential entrances and various joins that give up-to-the-moment undertakes the journalist's existence, the news, or on a particular subject of investment. Regularly riddled with obstinate or clear and reasonably objective (Romenesko, 2008) Development of weblogs has been to a great extent powered by more terrific access to transmission capacity and ease, frequently free programming. These basic simple to-utilize apparatuses have empowered new sorts of coordinated effort unlimited by time or geology. The effect is a development of new social examples and means for self-statement. Write like groups like have permitted an incalculable number of voices to take an interest while supervising a social request and furnishing a suitable channel on talk. The exceptional thing about them is that they bring new voices into the national talk on different points, and help construct neighbourhoods of investment through their accumulations of connecti ons. (Sen. Trent Lott, 2002). This raises some imperative inquiries: If participatory reporting has climbed without the immediate help of prepared authors or news industry activities, what part will standard media play? Also are standard media ready to surrender some control and energetically work together with their gatherings of people? Additionally will an educated and engaged purchaser start to edge the news driving force from the grassroots? Furthermore, will reporting's ethics persist? My opinion on the new trend toward participatory journalism is that citizen journalism has turned into a sensation of between participatory news coverage between the normal person and the native media is turning into another rising pattern in gathering and disseminating of news. It is not dependably conceivable for the media to be available all over the place so they search out native columnist with the guarantee of free attention. This association prepares between the media and the normal subje ct gains both ways. ii. Next, after reading the required bibliography, give your opinion of the new trend toward "participatory journalism" which was discussed in this week's bibliography reading. Do you believe that cell phone photography and citizen reporting will catch on in America, and do you see any relationship between such trends and the possibility for real political reform?Ã Ã
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Twins Genetics Essay Introduction Twin pregnancies still face greatest challenges in obstetric care and fetal medicine today. Much is known about the diseases by studying the development of infants who have shared the same foetuses. Pregnancies occurring with twins have a higher incidence of preterm labour, miscarriage and fetal death when compared to single pregnancies. Non-identical twins (dizygous, binovular, fraternal, or dizygotic) result from the fertilization of two independently released ova by two different sperm. Their genetic makeup is as dissimilar as one would expect between siblings. All these twins possess separate amnion sac. Whereas, identical twins (monozygous, uniovular, monozygotic) arise from the splitting of a single fertilized egg within the first 14 days after fertilization. Monozygous twins, depending on the timing of embryonic cleavage, may be dichorionic diamniotic (d1Ã¢â¬â3), monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) (d3Ã¢â¬â8), monochorionic monoamniotic (d9Ã¢â¬â12), or conjoined, when cleavage of the embryo occurs on day 12 or beyond (Farah Siddiqui, 2007). Monozygotic twins although, considered genetically identical, but there may exist a significant phenotypic discordance especially in the psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Ã (Mario F. Fraga, 2004) Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The history behind using Twins to investigate the role of heredity and environment in human life heads back to 19th century. Francis Galton. Charles Darwin cousin was the first researcher to think of this. Since, then twins are been considered as aspects of study in biology, medicine and psychology. Galton thought that since twin pairs (both identical and non-identical) share the same environment, there will be greater coordination of the genetic factors in the disease in genetically identical twins compared to non identical twins. But, by contrast, similar coordination rates for a disease in twins pairs (both identical and non-identical), or differences between the identical twins, suggest that the disease is probably due to non-genetical factors. Twin studies have been many times used to estimate the impact of genetic factors on the disease cause. It is believed that a genetic effect is suggested when the concordinance rate is identical twins exceeds that in nonidentical twins. The concordinance rate in the both identical and nonidentical twins in population based studies suggested that in case of multiple sclerosis there is 27% occurrence compared of the latter which is 3%. Similarly, Rheumatoid arthritis occurrence in former in 12.3% compared to the latter which is 3.5%. Whereas in systemic lupus erythematosus the concordance rate in nonidentical twin was nil compared to the identical twin, where the rate were 33% (Marco Salvetti, 2000). Twin studies also have the possiblity of assesing other applications in the assessment of aspects of potential relevance in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. There are possible precipitating factors of autoimmune conditions that await definition including epigenetic effects due to DNA aor protein modifications, the accumulation of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations, X chromosme incativation and the transcriptionally active endogeneous retroviral sequences presence (Marco Salvetti, 2000). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This contribution discusses the difference in the monozygous twins in which factors like the timings of monozygous twinning, linguistic differences and the genetic mechanism are discussed. There are many differences observed among twin pairs like mirror twinning, hair eye, and finger prints etc. without any known reasons or in other word we have very limited understanding ofÃ why these kind of differences arises?. In case of mirror twinning almost 25% of twins have differences and most common is handedness where both twin used different hand for particular purpose. The difference due to any unknown mechanism is also included. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The biggest challenge faced by investigators for evaluating genetic basis of complex disease is to identify small number of genes responsible for disease among thousands of genes present in whole genome in addition to that environmental effect makes task more difficult. Thus development of ideal model system to investigate genetic basis of disease becomes primary requirements. In the following some of the case studies where twins were used as model system for explain genetic bases of diseases are discussed including factors like immunity, leukemia, infectious and autoimmune diseases. Ã A `corpus` Ã Mechanisms for differences in monozygous twins: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In general perception Monozygous (MZ) twins are physically and genetically identical. Similarly, clinical determination of zygosity relies on the assumption that any physical differences between a pair of twins imply they are dizygous. As per the other perception dizygous twins share approximately 50% of the same genes, whereas monozygous twins share 100%. But advancement in molecular techniques and understanding of genetics of twins puts several question marks on above mention perception as there are many exception regarding genetic composition and physical appearance of mono and dizygotic twins. There are many numbers of intrauterine effects and other mechanisms that may result in phenotypic, genotypic, and epigenetic differences between monozygous twins. Some of those mechanisms are as follows. Timing of monozygous twinning: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Monozygous (MZ) twinning occurs when single fertilized egg give rise to two separate embryos and timing of this separation decides the post zygotic differences in upcoming twins. As early the separation there will be less similarity and late the separation there will be more similarity. During development if the two embryos are separated at latter part most of the differentiation processes completed before they separate and hence both offspring have similar origin. The extreme example of late twining is twins having common somatic organ (Conjoined twins). While in case of early separation the process of differentiation occurs independently which leads to creation of differences among of springs. If twining occurs 8 days after the fertilization and before 12th day the twins are quite identical to each other and called as monozygotic twins comprises of almost 5% of total twins. Genetic mechanisms: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is widely believed that monozygotic twins are genetically identical and any differences among them are result of environmental influence. But there is an ever-growing body of evidence that monozygotic twins are not always genetically identical. A number of phenotypic variations in monozygotic twins have been demonstrated to be caused by genetic differences alone and not influence by ante-natal environmental factors. In addition epigenetic modifications in particular sets of gene within a monozygotic twin pair leads to altered expression and hence contribute towards differences. (Paul Gringrasa, 2001). Genetically monozygotic twins can be different at the level of chromosome (number or morphology of chromosome) or DNA (mutation, epigenetic modification). At chromosome level variation classical example is gender difference and certain diseases like Turner syndrome (XYY) this is mainly happened due to early post zygotic mitotic error, resulting in heterokaryotic twining that involves nondisjunction or anaphase lag of the Y chromosome. While at DNA level there are mainly three mechanisms by which differences arises for example differential methylation of CpG island leads to inactivation or activation of particular gene and which contribute in causing differences among monozygotic twins. Not only that, this process of methylation is key factor for inactivation of whole X chromosome and many X-linked diseases like fragile-X, colour blindness, are result of this inactivation. Similarly post zygotic mutation leads to emergence of differences among monozygotic twins. Differences due to some unknown mechanism: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are many differences observed among twin pairs like mirror twinning, hair eye, and finger prints etc. without any known reasons or in other words we have very limited understanding of why these kinds of differences arises? In case of mirror twinning almost 25% of twins have differences and most common is handedness where both twin used different hand for particular purpose. The reason behind this was thought to be due to asymmetry of cerebral hemisphere dominance. Similarly, hair and eye colour were know to be the identification mark for dizygotic twins but now it was realized the there are many instances where the differences were observed in MZ too. The reason behind these differences are not well understood and thought to be due to complex genetic interaction and post zygotic mutation. Linguistic differences: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Twin based heritability estimates for language rarely exceeds 0.6 and for monozygotic twins in many instances they were found to be very different. In addition to that it was found that MZ are more likely to suffer linguistic delay and impairment than singletons. There are many factors which affect or create these differences like genetic, epigenetic and prenatal environmental factors. Meta-analyzed data from almost 100 twin studies indicate that depending on what aspect of language is assessed, heritable factors account for between 1/2 to 2/3Ã¢â¬â¢s of the variance in language- impaired twinsÃ¢â¬â¢ linguistic abilities and 1/4 to 1/2 of the variance in normal twinsÃ¢â¬â¢ linguistic abilities. These meta-analyses also reveal that for both languages impaired and normal twins (Stromswold, 2006). The major contributory factors among perinatal environmental conditions are low birth weight, premature birth, Placental and amniotic complications, Intrauterine infections, neonatal hyperbilirubinea, brain injuries to language area etc. similarly post natal factors includes language input, parental role etc. There are no well documented genetic factors influencing the language in isolation and always studied in light of environmental influence. Twins and genetics and diseases: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The biggest challenge faced by investigators for evaluating genetic basis of complex disease is to identify small number of genes responsible for disease among thousands of genes present in whole genome in addition to that environmental effect makes task more difficult. Thus development of ideal model system to investigate genetic basis of disease becomes primary requirements. The study of twins become central stage for this kind of investigation for example in case of non-identical twinsÃ there are some Ã similarity like age, family environment and background environmental variation while they have different genetic makeup, Provides excellent tool to determined effect of genetic makeup on diseases. While in case of identical twins, similarity in genetic makeup provides researchers with ways to isolate the function of individual genes involved in disease together with approaches to understanding how genes and the environment interact. Followings are some of the case studies where twins were used as model system for explain genetic bases of diseases. (Alex J. MacGregor, 2000) Twins and immunity: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Immunological disorders are some of the widely observed phenomenon and almost 5% of total population is suffering from these disorders, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), multiple sclerosis (MS), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and coeliac disease. Strong correlation between genetic makeup and immunological disorder were established based on various twinsÃ¢â¬â¢ studies. Here in this particular case the complexity of disease and involvement of genetic as well as environmental factors makes twin studies a right system for investigation where investigators can fix one parameter (genetic makeup in case of identical twins) and other variable to evaluate effect of other factor (i.e. environment). Initially genetic and environmental factors are both thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. But after employment of twins based study strongly rejected the above argument and clearly demonstrated that environment is the major contributor towards immune disease. Twins study demonstrated that the majority of identical twins with an autoimmune disease have an unaffected twin (Table 1). Table 1. Concordance rates in identical and non-identical twin pairs in population-basedÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Studies of immune-mediated diseases Disease Identical twin pairs (%) Non Identical twin pairs MS 26.7 3.5 RA 12.3 3.5 IDDM 13 2.5 SLE 33 0 (Marco Salvetti, 2000) In some cases initially unaffected twin may develop the clinical disease some years after the index twin, but that was not statistically significant. As the majority remain unaffected on prospective study. But one should remember that even identical twins can differ genetically for example X-chromosome inactivation in females. And differential methylation of CpG Island leads to expression of entirely different sets of genes. Similarly there are several somatic rearrangement occurred during T cell receptor development and antibody production and thus differential disease susceptibility in identical twins may be due to effect of non genetic (epigenetic) factor on genetic. Similarly, one should note the fact that observed frequency of particular disease (table1) found to be more in case of identical twins compared to non identical twins clearly indicates role of genetic factor. In conclusion for immune diseases environmental factors play major role in light of genetic background. Twins and Leukemia: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first report of concordant leukemia in twin children appeared in the German literature in 1882 and then after many reports came in similar lines, Most of these studies indicated that there is almost 5-15% concordance rate among monozygotic twins and there are significant differences observed in case of different type of leukemia and age. But surprisingly in case of adult twins the concordant was found to be less than 1% which clearly indicated prenatal origin of disease. The risk estimation of likelihoods of occurrence of disease in co twin is not quite accurate but they can be consider as reasonable guide and approaching 100% for infant while risk of the order of 1 in 10 for older children. This estimation is valid for monozygotic twins and those who have monochrorionic placenta. (Mel F. Greaves, 2003) Twins and infectious diseases: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There are several observations that clearly indicate infectious diseases have an inherited element, and individuals respond differently to particular infections. The behavior of infectious agents can vary so greatly between strains that the effects of individual Variation are best seen when the same strain of an organism simultaneously infects previously unexposed individuals. Twin studies have compared the disease status among identical and non-identical twins, with the expectation that disease concordance will be higher in identical twins for a disease with a genetically determined component. (Table 3). Even though there are numerous studies carried out to identify major gene responsible for diseases susceptibility there was no clear picture appears for the same. Ã The major contribution for diffrential suceptibility of infectious disease came for variation in HLA (major histocompatibility complex), T cell recptor and diffrential V-D-J recombination among twins. The environmental factor here Ã played very crucial role. Table: 3 Table depicting the concordance of disease percentage in both Monozygotic and DizygoticÃ twins, accordance to the country. (Hill, 2001) Ã Disease Concordance* Country MZ (%) DZ (%) Tuberculosis Ã Germany USA UK 65 62 32 25 18 14 Leprosy India 52 22 Poliomyelitis USA 36 Ã 6 Hepatitis B Taiwan 35 4 Possibility of twins having twins: Ã Ã Ã Birth of Identical or monozygotic twins dose not run in to the family but non identical of dizygotic twins have some heridetory influence. The main reason behind this is monozygotic twins are developed from single fertilized egg while non identical twins develop from two egges shed by ovary. The process of egg shedding have genetic manifestation and observed in woman having family history of twins.In conclusion, a mother of fraternal twins is 3-4 times more likely to have another set of fraternal twins. A woman who is an identical twin is no more likely to have twins compared to someone else expecting. Conclusion: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Twins were consider to be an ideal model system to understand influence of genetic and environmental factors on various aspect of human life including diseases susceptibility, metabolism, social behavior, IQ, personality, linguistic proficiency, Behavior etc. But the biggest challenges were to understand influence of individual factors on overall development of twins. In ideal condition MZ twins considered to be genetically and physiologically identical but there are many exceptions and that is mainly Due to post zygotic mutation and epigenetic influence along with well studied environmental factors. Similarly Immunity and disease susceptibility is mainly influence by environment and partly by genetic factor. For certain diseases like cancer, preventive measures should be taken in case of one of the twin diagnosed with disease, as chances of emergence of same disease in co-twin are high. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If the potential of twin studies is to be realized there should be strong collaboration between clinician, scientist and data management agency. Till recent past the main emphasis were given to genetic and environmental factors for any differences among twins. But development of newer technology based on molecular biology changes our perceptions. The epigenetic factors emerge as key contributor towards onset of physiological changes among twins at old age. Careful investigation along with new technology makes twin studies more useful with conclusive answer of various problems. Bibliography Alex J. MacGregor, H. S. (2000). novel uses to study complex traits and genetic diseases. TRENDS IN GENETICS , 131-134. Farah Siddiqui, A. M. (2007). Twins. OBDTETRICS, GYNAECOLGY AND REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE, 289-295. Hill, G. S. (2001). GENETICS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HUMAN INFECTIOUS DISEASE. NATURE REVIEWS GENETICS , 967-977. Marco Salvetti, G. R. (2000). Twins: mirrors of the immune system. IMMUNOLOGY TODAY . Mario F. Fraga*, E. B. (2004). Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime. PROCEEDING OF NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES , 10604-10609. Mel F. Greaves, A. T. (2003). Leukemia in twins: lessons in natural history. BLOOD , 2321-2331. Paul Gringrasa, ,. W. (2001). Mechanisms for differences in monozygous twins. EARLY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, 105-117. Stromswold, K. (2006). Why arenÃ¢â¬â¢t identical twins linguistically identical? Genetic, prenatal and postnatal factors. COGNITION , 333-386.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Sonoco Products Company According to (Chidambaram VijayabanuS and Ramachandran, 2012) success of a company is based on the human assets. This case study report is on Sonoco Products Company and its HR activities under the leadership of Cindy Hartley. It provides an overview of Sonoco Products Company, change requirements in the package industry and their influence on Sonocos strategy in tune with the objectives of the vice president of the company, analysis of the changes and judging their effectiveness, identifying the problems in Sonocos strategy with respect to HR management besides identifying ways and means to improve the HRM operations in Sonoco. According to ( Gibb, Stephen, 2003), HRM is essential. Finally suitable recommendations are given to Sonoco for the betterment of its strategies as world class HR organization under the leadership of its vice president Cindy Hartley. With leadership qualities senior management can take higher responsibilities (Jean-Francois Coget, 2011). About Sonoco Products Company In consumer and industrial packaging Sonoco is a global company with around 100 years of experience. In its chosen business, right from the inception from 1980s till initial part of 1990s, Sonoco enjoyed success and tremendous growth financially (Sonoco Products Case Study p1). However, due to its fixed pricing of plants, economic crisis in US markets such as manufacturing exports severely impacted Sonoco. For instance, due to such reasons, sales of Sonoco fell 6% down between the years 1995-1999. Nevertheless, the company, with its strategies to reduce expenses, managed to gain increase in profits by 14% in the period. Afterwards, sales of the company declined and that caused its stock values coming down and pressure was built on the company to maintain credibility with shareholders. At this juncture, new CEO by name Harris DeLoach was appointed by Sonoco. The main challenges before DeLoach were to reduce operational costs; to ensure top-line business growth; restructuring the consu mer packaging division; bring about cooperation across the divisions; considering human resources as corporate resources rather than a talent managed under general manager; revamping and restructuring divisions including HR (Sonoco Products Case Study p1). Since the beginning of Cindy Hartley in the capacity of senior VP of HR division, she was working totally towards the throats of the companys CEO DeLoach. In her tenure she introduced many changes and new policies in order to improve the business performance of the company, succession planning, development, compensation etc. Earlier when the company was in full swing of profits, the managers did not take the inefficient employees seriously as business growth was evidenced. Now it is changed and Cindy Hartley as per the DeLoachs challenge responded quickly and pondered over the problem and improve efficiency in HRM wing. Towards all these things, and reduce the cost Cindy Hartley set forth three important objectives as outlined in other section of this report (Sonoco Products Case Study p1). Packaging Industry and Sonoco Sonoco has been into the packaging industry. In 19900 packaging industry was making good revenues. The revenue generated by around 100, 000 companies worldwide was worth $400 billion. Consumer packaging paper and board reported very good increase in its growth. Paper and board recorded 34% revenues while consumer packaging recorded 70% and industrial packaging at 30%. In the later part of 1990s, due to globalization, businesses encountered competitive challenges and also growth opportunities (Sonoco Products Case Study p2). Manufacturing became decentralized as many companies from USA moved to other countries such as India and China where human resources were not costly. Later years i.e. between 1998-2000 there was dramatic increase in the share of five big companies reported at 40% to 60% increase in revenues. Consumer preferences were changed and domestic consumer markets recorded the segmentation of products were changed as per the preferences. When it comes to food industry more evidence is observed. In the retail markets products are even altered as per the customer requirements. Due to customer preferences instead of one version of product seven or eight becomes a common place. Packaging also was playing an important role while branding and thus it attracts more people. In those days in retail business packaging was more influential than advertising for getting new customers and retaining the existing one (Sonoco Products Case Study p2). As there are many changes in global economy and market conditions in USA, the effect of globalization, it was the responsibility of packaging companies to be more innovative and implement changes in the business as required. As said by an observer to win in the race one has to use emerging technologies as that gives winning edge to organizations. Companies who were into packaging invested a huge amount for making timely changes to their product designs. Afterwards the concept that appeared was one-stop-shop which attracted manufacturing firms, and other related businesses. The issues in the packaging industry include globalization of businesses, fixed price concept of Sonoco, USA firms started investing overseas, adapting to technology innovations, abrupt changes in the product design, decline in sales and revenues etc. The changes in the business arena, especially in the packaging industry influenced Sonoco to change its strategies and focus on more customers and solutions oriented and understood the words of Proctor Gamble. It also started looking at markets with focused coordination (Sonoco Products Case Study p3). What were Cindy Hartleys objectives for changes at Sonoco? Cindy Hartley, after becoming VP or HR department of Sonoco, she set forth three objectives to be achieved which were in tune with the thoughts of the new CEO of the company who wanted to cut short expenses of the organization more than 20% (Sonoco Products Case Study p1). The objectives are as given below. Making GMs accountable for managing talent and ensure that inefficient employees are not entertained. Considering HR talent as corporate resource rather than GMs talent and utilizing the human resources evenly across divisions. Developing consistent practices towards HRM. Optimizing HR to support business objectives of GM. Before she took office, employees were given salaries even when they are not performing. It does mean that as the company was in good profits, it ignored the HR best practices towards people who do not perform well. Cindy Hartley in the capacity of VP under the guidance of CEO wanted to make this organizational change to see that human resources are optimally utilized. GMs were made responsible for optimal usage of human resources and considered HR talent as corporate resource instead of just looking at it GMs manpower (Sonoco Products Case Study p1). HR Changes at Sonoco When Cindy Hartley was hired as new VP of HR window of Sonoco, she identified many problems with HR function as it was ruined and not consistent. The organizational structure in 1995 has some inherent problems. The focus on HR was different in those days. They thought it as something like back-room operation (Sonoco Products Case Study p4). The organizational structure was tactical in nature rather than strategic. In 1990s large divisions in the company have their own HR functions which are individual and not aligned to the overall corporate HR function properly. There were inconstancies in payroll related activities and also confidentiality was not maintained in such matters. The main problem was that corporate HR was seen in different perspective. It was seen as an entity that simply takes care of recruitments and relationships between employees and organization. Strategic planning was not possible due to staff structure which was complex. GMs of divisions exercised discretion and make mistakes in the process of providing compensation to staff members (Sonoco Products Case Study p4). The reporting structure of the company has less useful things and HR people were taking things for granted. The process of compensations was considered entitlements rather than looking them at in practical cost related perspective. Sonocos employee appraisal strategy was also not perfect. The timing of it and the encouraging merit employees was not flawless. There were cases of manipulation of performance reports. The performance evaluation was not actually reflecting the efficiency of employees. At the same time experienced employees are an asset (Barbara A. Anderson, 2005). Worst case is that the best performed employees were fired due to reasons other than performance. There were not action plans, and there were complaints from the employees with respect to their career (Sonoco Products Case Study p4). When Hartley took office in 1995, she was determined to build HR group with much focus on business orientation and professionalism. Priority was given for making leaders in the organization. It does mean that leadership traits were taught to HR people. The companys growth strategy, cash flow, working capital management was given focus. Favourable work conditions also play a role (ISIK U. ZEYTINOGLU GORDON B. COOKE KARLENE HARRY JAMES CHOWHAN1, 2008). The priorities set by Hartley to set the things right are as shown below (Sonoco Products Case Study p4). The compensation strategies and measuring performance of individualos is given top priority as this ensures that the best performers are given right compensation. Planning for making good number of leaders for the ensuing generation. A robust employee development process that ensured that employees skills are improved constantly. Organizational performance results in financial growth (Brain becker and barry garhat, 1966). From the perspective of changes in the organization she was regarded as a change maker. She was well known among her colleagues as a good manager. A counsel was built to help in HR management. When she stared change management, many in the organization did not allow it. For instance HR heads of the divisions resisted her actions towards making changes in HR strategies (Sonoco Products Case Study p4). The first problem tackled was compensation and performance management as they are fundamental issues of HR. In 1996, HR management was revised again to make it more effective. Its main focus was on alignment and consistency. For change management all stake holders are convinced. For each plant manager specific set of metrics are given. For Instance the metrics are safety, customer returns, quality, machine downtime, plat profit etc. The metrics of individual units are aligned with overall busine ss objectives of the company. In 1997, the Sonoco Products Company adopted a shared vision with respect to performance management. In other words Sonoco discussed the performance management strategies with employees as well (Sonoco Products Case Study p4). The compensation management and salary system are combined. The mangers were encouraged to follow guidelines and educate employees so as to make them to give best services and also measures value addition of individuals. With respect to succession planning and leadership development the strategies are to be agreed up on by divisional senior management. And advisory team was built by Hartley for improving the system (Sonoco Products Case Study p4). The six leadership traits are recorded. They include coaching and monitoring, knowledge management, teamwork, strategic integration, communication and customer satisfaction through excellence. Sonoco followed three sources for assessing the capabilities of managers. They include successi on planning, performance management system and 360-degree feedback. HR function is improved every year. By 2000, almost all fundamental changes were made to the organizational HR function. Hartley revamped aspects like IT systems, performance management, compensation, diversity and succession planning. However, it has must to do to make strides in business growth. Intensive and basic compensation plans were subjected to major changes (Sonoco Products Case Study p1). HR Structure Recommendation for Sonoco HRM efficiency is possible through right personnel (Y. Paul Huo, Heh Jason Huang, and Nancy K. Napier, 2002). Hartley wanted to restructure HR function. There are two models for structural organization of HR division. They include centralization model and hybrid model. In the centralization model many HR activities are handled by four centers of expertise. These divisions are managed by field experts who have wealth of knowledge. It helps in the reduction of administrative and other costs pertaining to process improvement. However, it faces fewer opportunities when it has to be aligned with individual businesses (Sonoco Products Case Study p7). Centralization requires clever way of handling HRM (Asma Zaineb, 2011). The second option is named as hybrid structure. In this approach the divisions have provisions in the involvement of compensation, personnel programs, succession planning and staffing. It leaves the individual HR manager on which GMs rely. The both structures meant for imp lementing HR strategy that is common in both. The HR changes done by Hartley are sustainable as they are meant for reducing expenses and improve large scale business opportunities (Sonoco Products Case Study p7). For HR structure of Sonoco I recommend centralized model as it has many advantages over hybrid structure (Heidi Cardenas, 2012). The advantages include reduction in operational costs, concentration of HR skills, sharing of knowledge, optimization processes and organizational support. Centralized human resources model can save operational costs for various activities of HR such as recruiting, benefits and compensation management, and recruiting. Sharing of knowledge among the divisions is possible through centralized computing. Technology should be used in recruitments (Derek S.Chapman and Jane Webster, 2003) Centralized HR managers are easily accessible and one can get faster service (Heidi Cardenas, 2012). It promotes HR skills improvements. Business processes can be optimized effectively using centralized HR model. It facilitates easy and consistent development of processes for various activities like performance management, recognition, recruiting, and payroll. Its easy to develop companywide aspects such as resource processes, easy to develop communication with all places in the organization. Another advantage of centralized computing is better organizational support for company. Centralized approach well suites organizations where staff members are trained as to how to communicate effectively. The approach provides (Heidi Cardenas, 2012). SHRM also gained popularity (Patrick M. Wright, Benjamin B. Dunford, Scott A. Snell, 2001). Nevertheless, centralized model of HR has its limitations such as administration causing inequalities, strict conformity of official norms etc. and dictatorship which does not take employees into confidence while making policies (Asma Zaineb, 2011). Size of the organization also has consideration for HRM strategy (GEORGE CALLAGHAN AND PAUL THOMPSON, 2002). Fig. 1 Centralized Model for HR Structure As can be seen in fig. 1, the HR structure of Sonoco has VP at the top of the hierarchy. The single rooted hierarchy with administrative, experts and field staff services. The study of Sonocos business scenario and HR function closely from the views of Hartley and CEO of the company, there was lot of improvement in its functioning due to the efforts of Hartley. However, it can be said that it needs further improvement. The following are the recommendations for Sonoco. First and foremost importance has to be given to a centralized mode of HR structure as it has many advantages. It reduces costs of process improvement activiti4es and also administrative costs. As Sonoco VP of HR and CEO of the company want to reduce the operational costs, the centralized model is best suited. The existing practice of linking HR operations and processes with business objectives of Sonoco, culture and values has to be continued with further changes if required. HR influences many key systems (Coro Strandberg, 2009). The best practices are pertaining to it such as organizational core competencies, performance management, 360 degree reviews, building tomorrow leader through career development and training, organizational reviews, learning by doing, online performance and learning, training for sales and marketing people, team skill development, reward and recognition including broad banding, and centennial shares. There is relationship between training and organizational performance (Salem Shiryan, Dr. Himanshu Shee and Deborah Stewart, 2012). And training makes organization stronger (Rebecca Grossman and Eduardo Salas, 2011). Reflection The HRM module has given me adequate insights into the HRM activities that help me in putting in into use in my future endeavors. Understanding certain concepts of HRM has led me to know the fundamentals of HRM. From the study it is understood that human resource department is not meant for acting as back-room while it has tremendous utility when harnessed properly. The study also let me know the important structure for HRM such as centralized hybrid models. Moreover Sonoco case study has given me in depth understanding possibilities in realizing the case with respect to HR management. From this experience I came to know certain facts related to HR structures known as centralized and hybrid. No changes can be implemented without people involving in the process. This is the reason continuous education and training is required to staff members in order to improve quality in service and also produce leaders for future generation.
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Relationship Between Social Class and Educational Achievement Many sociologists have tried to explore the link between social class and educational achievement, measuring the effects of one element upon the other. In order to maintain a definite correlation between the two, there are a number of views, explanations, social statistics and perspectives which must be taken into account. The initial idea would be to define the key terms which are associated with how "social class" affects "educational achievement." "Social class" is the identity of people, according to the work they do and the community in which they live in."Educational achievement" is the tendency for some groups to do better or worse in terms of educational success. Research reveals that the higher the social class, the higher the levels of educational achievement are likely to be. The children of parents in higher social classes are more likely to stay on in post compulsory education, more likely to achieve examination passes when at school, and more likely to gain university entrance. These features painted a true picture of British education in the twentieth century and can be argued to follow this trend today. However, whether there has been any reduction in the inequalities is more debatable, but some research suggests that these inequalities are as great as ever, despite the overall improvements within the education system. Many researchers argue that IQ tests are biased in favour of the middle class, since members of this group largely construct them. If it is accepted that social classes and other groups have distinctive subcultures and that this affe... ... to reject school and school values (such as academic success). This has its roots outside of school in the nature of the fathers and elder brothers' in manual work. They look up to these figures and see school as "sissy", un-masculine, unlike the "real" masculine work that their fathers, brothers etc do. Overall, in conclusion there can be no definite correlation identified between "social class" and "educational achievement" in that there is much research into this and many sociologists suggest their own theories, and have yet not decided whether there is a link or not. However, there does seem to be correlation of some kind as sociologists either favour it or not. It can be still said that the main relationship between these factors is the higher the social class; the more likely the pupil is going to succeed.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Beowulf:Ã Qualities of a Hero A hero is someone that helps others no matter what the situation. There are many qualities that a hero must posses such as bravery, courage, strength, intelligence and honor. These qualities alone are not enough to make a hero. They must also be pure at heart, fight for the good of mankind and only fight when it is to protect the people and not out of revenge. Beowulf is everything a hero should be, but contains a few qualities that a hero should not posses. When Beowulf sailed with his men to Herot he had one goal, to rid the hall of Grendal. Beowulf was under no obligation to destroy Grendal and never asked for anything in return for his services. A true hero would never ask for money or anything of value. He put his life at risk to save the people of Herot, who he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even know, out of his own good nature Great strength has been a trait that has been identified with heroes in many stories and legends. Than he saw hanging on the wall, a heavy Sword, hammered by giants, st rong And blessed with their magic, the best of all weapons But so massive that no ordinary man could lift... (II. 1557-1560) Beowulf possessed great strength that separated him from other men. Being able to use a sword that no ordinary man was able to carry gives the feeling that Beowulf is something more than a human being. It makes him special and causes him to stand out from all other men. Fame is something that makes a hero more noted. Beowulfs popularity had spread all over the world. He never let this go to his head and he never thought that he was better than everyone else because of it. Ã¢â¬Å"Your fame is everywhere, my friend,/Reaches to the ends of the earth, and you hold it in your heart wisely...Ã¢â¬ (II.1704-1706). A hero should not be foolish or full of himself. Unferth said: YouÃ¢â¬â¢re Beowulf, are you- the same Boastful fool who fought a swimming Match with Brecca, both of you daring and young and proud,exploring the deepest Seas, risking your lives for no rea son But the danger? (II. 506-511) A hero should not have to prove to himself or to anyone else that he is brave, fearless or courageous. If he is pure a heart and his intentions are good then he can be considered a true hero.