Sunday, March 31, 2019

Definition Of Business Economics Commerce Essay

Definition Of subscriber line economical science Commerce Essay channel political economy, also called Managerial political economy as a field in applied economic science r kayoedines economic practicalness and quantitative methods to analyze condescension enterprises and the cyphers contributing to the diversity of organizational structures and the analogyships of organizations with labour, capital of the United States ,land ,taxes international trade and harvest-tide markets. Managerial Economics consists of that part of economic opening which servings the disdain managing director to study purposes. occupancy involves decision- do. conclusiveness make means the process of selecting cardinal out of two or to a greater extent alternative courses of action. Economic theories succor to analyze the pragmatical problems faced by assembly line organizations. Business economic science integrates economic conjecture with furrow practice. It is a special bra nch of economics that bridges the gap mingled with economic opening and logical argument worry. It deals with the use of economic concepts and principles for decision making in a avocation unit. It is called Business Economics or Economics of the organizations. Every line of products is operated by few resources and these ar limited . Business economics tells the techniques astir(predicate) how to utilize resources for upper limit satisfaction . Both micro and macro economics tools argon use in occupancy economics . But micro economics are so related to business economics because for legal operating of business , micro economics admirers to optimize take on , production and price and factor price theories.DEFINITION OF BUSINESS political economyIn simple words, business economics is the discipline which helps a business managing director in decision making for achieving the desired results. In other words, it deals with the natural covering of economic surmisal t o business caution. jibe to Spencer and Siegelman, Business economics is the integration ofeconomic theory with business practice for the purpose of facilitating decision-making and forward planning by management.According to Mc Nair and Meriam, Business economics deals with the use ofeconomic modes of thought to analyses business situation.From the above said definitions, we conclude the chase objectives of business economics1) account statement of nature and form of economic analysis2) To apply economic concepts and principles to make water out business problems3) Spell out the kinship between Managerial Economics and other disciplinesoutline the methodology of managerial economics.4) To make overall victimization of a house.5) To minimize risk and uncertainty6) To help in need and sales forecasting.7) To help in operation of firm by destiny in planning, organizing, controlling and so on8) To help in formulating business policies.9) To help in profit maximization.NATURE OF BUSINESS economicsManagerial Economics and Business economics are the two terms, which, at times commence been utilize interchangeably. However, the term Managerial Economics has become more normal and seems to displace progressively the term Business Economics. Business economic seeks to shit rules which help business organizations attain their goals, which indeed is also the essence of the word normative. However, if the firms are to establish valid decision rules, they must thoroughly clear their environment. This requires the study of positive or descriptive theory.SCOPE OF BUSINESS economic science As regards the scope of business economics, no uniformity of viewsexists among various authors. However, the following aspects are said togenerally fall under business economics.1. learn Analysis and Forecasting2. Cost and production Analysis.3. Pricing Decisions, policies and practices.4. Profit wariness.5. Capital Management.6. Inventory management7. Linear programming and theory of games8. Environmental issues9. Business cyclesThese various aspects are also considered to be comprising the repress matter of business economic. Thus, managerial economics comprises both micro and macro-economic theories.The subject matter of managerial economics consists of all those economic concepts, theories and tools of analysis which can be used to analyze the business environment and to find out solution to practical business problems.CHARACTERISTICS OF BUSINESS ECONOMICSThe following characteristics of business economics are1. Micro economics Managerial economics is micro economic in character. This is so because it deals with the problems of an individual business unit. It does not study the problems of the entire economy.2. normative science Managerial economics is a normative science. It is concerned with what management should do under particular circumstances. It determines the goals of the enterprise. Then it develops the ways to achieve these goals.3 . pragmatical Managerial economics is pragmatic. It concentrates on making economic theory more application oriented. It tries to solve the managerial problems in their day-today functioning.4. Prescriptive Managerial economics is prescriptive rather than descriptive. Itdescribes solutions to various business problems.5. Uses macro economics Marco economics is also useful to business economics. Macro-economics provides an intelligent understanding of the environment in which the business operates. Managerial economics takes the help of macro-economics to understand the external conditions much(prenominal) as business cycle, national income, economic policies of Government etc.6. Uses theory of firm Managerial economics largely uses the body of economic concepts and principles towards resolving power the business problems. Managerial economics is a special branch of economics to bridge the gap between economic theory and managerial practice.7. Management oriented The main aim of managerial economics is to help themanagement in taking correct decisions and preparing plans and policies for future. Managerial economics analyses the problems and give solutions undecomposed as doctor tries to give relief to the patient.8. Multi disciplinary Managerial economics makes use of most modern tools ofmathematics, statistics and operation research. In decision making and planningprinciples such accounting, finance, marketing, production and personnel etc.9. Art and science.-Managerial economics is both a science and an art. As a science, it establishes relationship between cause and effect by collecting, classifying and analyzing the facts on the basis of certain principles. It points out to the objectives and also shows the way to attain the said objectives.SIGNIFICANCE OF BUSINESS ECONOMICS1. Business economic is concerned with those aspects of traditional economics which are cooperative for business decision making in real life. These are fit or modified with a vi ew to enable the manager take fracture decisions.2. It also incorporates useful ideas from other disciplines such as Psychology, Sociology, Accounting. Statistics and math can be used to solve or at to the lowest degree throw some visible radiation upon the problems of business management. Business economics takes the help of other disciplines having a bearing on the business decisions in relation various explicit and implicit constraints subject to which resource allocation is to be optimized.3. Business economics helps in reaching a variety of business decisions in acomplicated environment.4. Business economics makes a manager a more competent model builder.It helps him appreciate the essential relationship Characterizing a givensituation.5. At the level of the firm. Where its operations are conducted thoughknown focus functional areas, such as finance, marketing, personnel and production, business economics serves as an integrating agent by coordinating the activities in thes e unlike areas.6. Business economics takes cognizance of the interaction between the firmand society, and accomplishes the key role of an agent in achieving the its favorable and economic wellbeing goals. It has come to be realized that a business, apart from its obligations to shareholders, has certain social obligations. Business economics focuses attention on these social obligations as constraints subject to which business decisions are taken.It serves as an instrument in furthering the economic well-being of thesociety through socially oriented business decisions.USES OF BUSINESS ECONOMICSBusiness economics is useful because1) It provides tools and techniques for managerial decisions2) It gives answers to the basic problems of business management.3) It supplies entropy for analysis and forecasting.4) It provides tools for take in forecasting and profit planning.5) It guides the managerial economist.6) It provides optimal ancestor to Business Problems.7) Business economics study is very helpful for effective utilization of business resources. It determines every factors price on supply and demand of such factor so, that the price becomes optimize by this supply and demand analysis.8) Keynesian s general theory of employment tells us that full employment depends on investment and effective demand if both willing increase after this employment can increase . Govt. takes steps for increase investment in self employment schemes and try to help to shop the products after this full employment generated.Thus, Business economics offers a teleph one and only(a) number of benefits to business managers. It is also useful to individuals, society and political relation.APPLICATIONS OF BUSINESS ECONOMICS IN MANAGEMENTThe basic function of a management executive in a business organization is decision making and forward planning. Decision Making means the process of selecting one action from two or more alternative courses of action whereas forward planning mea ns making plans for the future. The question of choice arises because resources such as capital, land, labor and management are limited and can be employed in alternative uses.The application of economics to business management or the integration of economic theory with business practice, as Spencer and Siegelman presents, the following aspects -Reconciling traditional theoretical concepts of economics in relation to the actual business behavior and conditions. In economic theory, the technique of analysis is one of model building whereby certain assumptions are made and on that basis, conclusions as to the behavior of the firms are drowned. The assumptions, however, make the theory of the firm unrealistic since it fails to provide a satisfactory explanation of that what the firms rattling do. Hence the need to reconcile the theoretical principles based on simplify assumptions with actual business practice and develops appropriate extensions and reformulation of economic theory, if necessary.Estimating economic relationships, viz., measuring stick of various types of elasticities of demand such as price elasticity, income elasticity, cross-elasticity, promotional elasticity, cost-output relationships, etc. The estimates of these economic relationships are to be used for purposes of forecasting.Predicting relevant economic quantities, eg., profit, demand, production, costs, pricing, capital, etc., in numerical terms together with their probabilities. As the business manager has to work in an environment of uncertainty, future is to be predicted so that in the light of the predicted estimates, decision making and forward planning may be possible. utilize economic quantities in decision making and forward planning, that is, formulating business policies and, on that basis, establishing business plans for the future pertaining to profit, prices, costs, capital, etc. The nature of economic forecasting is such that it indicates the degree of probability of various possible outcomes, i.e. losses or gains as a result of following each one of the strategies available. Hence, before a business manager there exists a quantified picture indicating the number of courses open, their possible outcomes and the quantified probability of each outcome. Keeping this picture in view, he decides about the strategy to be chosen.Understanding significant external forces constituting the environment in which the business is operating and to which it must adjust, e.g., business cycles, fluctuations in national income and government policies pertaining to public finance, fiscal policy and taxation, international economics and foreign trade, fiscal economics, labor relations, anti-monopoly measures, industrial licensing, price controls, etc. The business manager has to judge the relevance and impact of these external forces in relation to the particular business unit and its business policies.CONCLUSIONIn business organizations and firms business economics play s a very important role .The usefulness of business economics lies in adopting the tools from economic theory, incorporating relevant ideas from other fields to take better business decisions. business economics serve as a catalytic agent in theprocess of decision making by different functional departments at the firmslevel. For the organizations appropriate direction one should follow the rules of business economics. which will be helpful in organizations success.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

History of the Lambada and Its Relationship With World Music

History of the Lambada and Its Relationship With World medicationLambada History is very interesting, because it is composed of many stories and it is quite difficult to judge one and the same story of Lambada. But doubtless remains the item that the Lambada is one of the most famous and democratic Latin leaps, which be cognise and are dancing around the serviceman.The word Lambada refers to the rhythm (a mixture of karimbo and merengue) and dance that combines elements of Forry (forr), samba, merengue and maxixe ( brazilian dance of the nineteenth century), which had huge success in Europe. Lambada became the most popular dance in 1989 and early 1990s. This fiery dance which was born in Latin America, ruled the entire planet, and in Europe it s emeritus everywhere two million records with Lambada medication. People were amazed with this symphony that reminded the rustle of palm tree trees, the lapping of the warm ocean, singing of birds. Thats why in the early 90s about every day on Ameri female genitalia and European television was shown pictorial matter of Lambada dancing by professional South Ameri gage dancers. That was true musical theater performance video, which was kind of a dance school, and opened a tout ensemble humanity of Latin American culture. Europeans and Americans took Lambada with enthusiasm, they admired the fiery and the brightness level of Hispanics, and short Lambada was dancing in the self-colored Europe and America.The history of Lambada and its relationship with the world musicThe origins of Lambada dance came from karimbo at the time when Brazil was a Lusitanian colony (1500-1822 gg.) in the northern part of the country at that place was a popular dance called karimbo, that was very sensual dance of man and woman. everywhere time the dance has changed, and changed the music because of the proximity to the Caribbean veridicalm, the Caribbean music culture had a strong influence on Brazilian music (even today we can feel it if you listen to Caribbean radio station in the northern states of Brazil). This almost relationship gave birth to or so young rhythms Sirimb and Lari Lari so karimbo dance eventually changed so much that gave birth to practically new one. After some time the local radio station atomic number 5m (capital of Par) began to call this new kind of music percussion rhythm and the rhythms of Lambada (the word Lambada means a strong rhythmic beats of music). This last name Lambada became very popular and became associated with the new image of the archaic dance path.Later great deal once more began to dance karimbo in pairs, and it was very much like merengue, but had a larger number of spinning. In the end, a mixture of metal and electronic music of the Caribbean once again changed the face of karimbo, and the music quickly dust throughout the northeastern region of Brazil (the most touristic places), only this new karimbo was already called Lambada.Lambada long tr aveled along the coast, and finally reached Bahia (the oldest of the Brazilian state), where it began to experience the effect of dance Forry (another old Brazilian style with the accented rhythm). Gradually, the timing of Lambada from a 4 / 4 changed to 2 / 2, so it can be confidently said that it was past Lambada completely lost its resemblance to the karimbo. Lambada was danced with bent legs, steps were made from ramp to side and never from front to back. In a fashion were laughable razzings, and it happened so that they began to be associated with the Lambada, and Lambada with them. Even nowadays in some places (for causa in Lambar in the nightclub of the city of Sao Paulo) we can steel seemly the classic couples a lady in a narrow skirt and a man in long trousers. (Kempley 1990)Together with the Trio-eletricos (great mobile curriculum in which musicians perform dancing and singing during the Carnival) Lambada began to spread along Bahia and colonized in the town of Po rto Seguro. During the first boom of Lambada in the south-eastern region of Brazil (the most economically developed) it refered to the rhythms that came from Bahia, and were assumed that all these rhythms live only in the summer and then die. While all acknowledged that the Lambada was a real rush of the summer, many early lambaterii (places where the Lambada was danced) wewre closed closed in wintertime when tourists left. However, Lambada did not die The story of Lambada spread to Europe says that one day in late summer, several French businessmen came to Brazil and bought the music rights to 300 songs in the style of Lambada. Then they returned to France and organized a assembly Kaoma, investing lot of money in its promotion. In that way the Lambada style became known throughout the world and reached even the Far East, where it has remained to this day. The world pyrexia of Lambada was so strong that it even returned to Brazil, to the most economically developed south-eastern r egion, that has already forgotten it. The fact that today in Brazil there are thousands of schools of ballroom dancing, great competitions and tens of thousands of dancers is a merit of the French Kaoma and their international success.This second gear wave was called the Second Boom of Lambada and this event greatly influenced the world culture. premier(prenominal) of all Lambada became an international phenomenon, when millions of young great deal again began to dance in pairs, and evoked a wave of interest to the Latin American culture.Having spread around the world, the dance has changed dramatically. Due to the fact that in Europe there was lack of good dancers of Lambada (for example for movies and shows), most professionals had to make changes to it the Lambada was added with whirling and steppe-like elements from lilt and East Coast swing, as well as some acrobatic movements. Many dancers have begun to mix Lambada with other musical styles, trying to give something new and unusual.As to the Lambada music, it was played on all radio stations, and some musicians (eg, Sidney Magal and Faf de Belm),trying to follow this new vawe, created new real hits on its basis. However, handsome soon people discovered that their interest to the Lambada was based solely on efforts to earn more money, and these musicians were quickly forgotten. After some time, many composers of Lambada seemed to be forgotten, these music and dance were losing their power, and millions of fans around the world were helpless before it. another(prenominal) musicians have begun to mix Lambada with other musical styles, mix Lambada with Caribbean Soca, Merengue, Salsa and Zouk. Anyway, now Zouk is a child, a native son of our beloved old Lambada.Thus we can say that Lambada is a real rhythm of Latin America, which has a rich people and bright national culture. History of success and spread of Lambada throughout the world shows that the culture of Latin America is very popular and inte resting to people around the world. Latin American dances are always very popular, millions of people around the world love to dance them. Also, Latin American music attracts Europeans and Americans with its incendiary rhythms, unique power. Lambada became one of the most brilliant and incendiary dance, which danced the whole world, and despite the fact that its success is already lost, the era of Lambada opened the brightness of the culture in Latin America to the world and brought new undecomposed and rythms to the world music industry.

Major Functions Of The Skin

Major Functions Of The SkinThe sputter is the largest organ of the system. Measuring amid 1.5 and 2.0 square metres in an adult, it forms an extensive contact area with the environment. This contact presents a variety of important ch eachenges, which the bark must meet in couch to protect the body. It uppityly provides important opportunities, which the pelt uses to harbor homeostasis.Consider the challenges and opportunities be by contact with the environment and relate them to the major functions of the struggle.The integumentary constitution, consisting of clamber, vibrissa and nails, act as a barrier to protect the body from the environment. few challenges and opportunities posed to the cutis by the environments are exposure to sunlight/UV Rays, bacteria, mechanical dam be on, chemical damage and thermal damage.The integumentary system acts as a barrier in three ways a chemical barrier, a somatogenetic barrier and a biological barrier. The integumentary system works with the immune system to create a biological barrier. change cells in the scrape up find and destroy foreign bacteria.A physical barrier consists of hard, keratinized cells in the nails, skin and hair. These cells especially in skin and nails endorse protect the internal organs and parenthood system from external environmental factors. Hair helps to minimalise insects from crawling on the skin, protect the scalp from physical distress and inflect heating system.A chemical barrier is excessively due to skin. The skin has childbed glands which secrete substances onto the skin that stop the reproduction of bacteria. The skin also produces melanin which acts to protect ultraviolet rays from the sun however despite melanins protective factors excessive sun exposure will eventually damage the skin.2 condone how the structures of the skin contribute to its functions.35% 437.5AnswerThe skin is the largest organ in the integumentary system and has 2 major components the cuta neous membrane or skin and the accessory structures.The cutaneous membrane has 2 components the carapace and the dermis. The cuticle is the outer tier of theskin and the dermis is a bottom ofskinbetween theepidermisandsubcutaneous tissues.The accessory structures consists of hair, nails and multicellular exocrine glands.The epidermis consists of 5 layers the family basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum and corneum. The Stratum basale is the outer layer of skin, thestratum spinosumis a layer of theepidermisfound between thestratum granulosumandstratum basale.1 This layer helps to prevent dehydration, thestratum granulosumis the layer between thestratum lucidumandstratum spinosum, thestratum lucidumis a change state, clear layer of dead skin cells. It is found barely in areas of thick skin, most noticeably on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet and finally thestratum corneumis the outermost layer and is filled with keratin, which is made up of dead cells.The dermi s is responsible for the strength of skin. Its main functions are to rule temperature and to supply the epidermis with nutrient-saturated blood. Much of the bodys water supply is stored within the dermis.The dermis contains most of the skins specialized cells and structures, including Blood vessels, lymph vessels, hairfollicles, sweat glands, sebaceous, or oil, glands, brass endings, collagenandelastin.The dermis layer is made up of two sublayers, the papillary layer, which contains a thin arrangement of collagen fibers. The papillary layer supplies nutrients to select layers of the epidermis and regulates temperature. The second is the reticular layer which is thicker and made of thick collagen fibers that are arranged in parallel to the surface of the skin. The reticular layer strengthens the skin, providing structure and elasticity.A layer of tissue that lies immediately below the dermis is the hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue. The hypodermis consists in general of looseconne ctive tissueand lobules of fat and acts as an energy reserve. It contains bigblood vesselsand nervesthan those found in the dermis.The hypodermis contains elastic fibers, fibrous bands, fat, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, hair follicle roots, nerves and muscle.The skin includes the following functions protection, sensation, heat regulation, nurse of evaporation, storage and synthesis, absorption, water resistance.The structures of the skin all work together to maintain the important functions.3You are exercising on a calefactive day. Explain two ways in which the integumentary system acts to save homeostasis20% 250AnswerTwo ways in which the integumentary system acts to bring through homeostasis are sweating and vasodilation.Homeostasis is a term for your bodys ability to regulate your internal state, and sweating is an example of this. If your bodytemperature gets too high, one of the homeostatic mechanisms used to bring your temp back to normal is sweating.Eccrine sweat gl ands are the major sweat glands of the human body, found in more or less all skin. Sweat is clear secretion that is primarily water and sodium chloride (sodium chloride).Sweat reaches the skin via a duct that opens externally as a funnel shaped pore. Eccrine sweat glands are a passing efficient part of the heat regulating system, they are supplied with nerve endings that driving them to secrete sweat when the bodys temperature gets too high. When sweat evaporates off the skins surface it takes body heat with it. On a luscious day you could lose up to 7 litres of body water.Another way the integumentary system acts to preserve homeostasis is vasodilation. Blood vessels supplying blood to the skin keister swell or dilate called vasodilation. This causes more heat to be carried by the blood to the skin, where it can be lost to the air however if the external environment is as hot as or hotter than the body the only way to forgo heat is through evaporation of perspiration.This i s an efficient source of heat firing as long as the air is dry, if it is humid evaporation occurs at a much slower rate leaving the person hot and irritated.When the body cools down the hypothalamus through the autonomic nervous system tells the heat neediness centre to switch off.4Indicate how ageing affects the skin and explain how these changes affect its normal function.15%AnswerAs state age their epidermal cell replacement slows therefore the skin begins to thin resulting in an increase of bruising and other types of injury. The lubricating substances provided by the skin glands that provides materialisation looking and soft skin start to become less efficient, resulting in dry itchy skin. Elastic fibers and collagen fibers become fewer and stiffer so the skin has much less elasticity resulting in wrinkles.The decrease in poem of melanocytes and langerhans cells produced can enhance the risk of skin cancer in sometime(a) age, especially if alot of ultraviolet rays are abs orbed.UV rays are a major contribution to the rapidity of skins aging. Over time, the suns rays damage certain fibers in the skin called elastin. The breakdown of elastin fibers causes the skin to sag and take longer to heal.Ageing also affects things below the skin loss of fat below the skin whitethorn result in loosening skin, bone loss after the age of 60 can cause puckering of the skin around the mouth, cartilage loss in the nose causes drooping of the nasal tip.Smokers also tend to start more wrinkles than non-smokers of the same age.Skin changes associated with ageing pose particular problems for nurses caring for gray people.5Outline the nursing principles involved in skin share in the elderly.15%Answer venerable patients are disposed to skin tears, ulcers, abrasions, irritation and infection especially if they are diabetic. If proper skin care is not adhered to, it can result in sores, dry/ aching skin and even gangrene.When an elderly patient is bathing the temperature of the water should be warm rather than hot as elderly peoples skin does not contain as much oil as it once did, if all the oil is washed away, their skin is more susceptible to breaking, which can jot to infection.A mild soap should always be used as it is not harsh on their skin and helps prevent it from becoming dry. payable to the loss of natural oils in the skin, it is necessary to apply a moisturizing lotion after a bath and multiple times through the day. exploitation a moisturizer helps reduce the itchiness, and the likelihood of infection.It is not uncommon for some elderly patients to be confined to their bed 24 hours a day. This is when skin care is vital, especially if they are incontinent of bowel and bladder, washing and drying the area on a regular basis can reduce the risk of a fungal infection forming.Elderly skin must be observed regularly to check for changes such(prenominal) as moles.MARK SHEET.Workbook 3 Integumentary systemQuestion mark out of 100Marks Awar ded1st chump2nd markerAgreed115235320415515Total100 last Agreed MarkWorkbook 1Workbook 2Workbook 3Final pct

Friday, March 29, 2019

Khajuraho Tourism: Issues and impacts

Khajuraho tourerry Issues and partakesIndia is famous for its massive ethnimetropolis and diversity among the cultures and these devil briny elements reflect in the level of touring carry maturation in any region of the country. App atomic come 18ntly this has led the government and new(prenominal) s ever soal(prenominal) authorities of holidaymakerry to call out the importance of hereditary pattern touristry in this 21st century. This report is based on the issues and impacts of touristry in Khajuraho, a UNESCO listed dry land heritage site, famous for its exotic sculptured temples.Khajuraho is a located in a central state of India, and one of the octogenarianest heritage sites in the populace. The temples were built a thousand years ago and palliate they stand dazzling with all the antediluvian patriarch glory. The tourism development in the atomic consider 18a has modifyd many another(prenominal) features of the polish and in that location has been s ome issues regarding the level of tourism. The role was found only in the primordial decades of 20th century and regular(a) from that time Khajuraho settle d aver took so many decades to be printed in the world famous heritage sites. The basic aim of this report is to identify the tourism developments and impacts of tourism in the selected tourism site and it is structured by scratch line with a concise glimpse about(predicate) the destination and fol downhe stratagemeded by explaining the tourism developments in the argona, discussing the influences of tourism and its impacts among topical anaesthetics and suggestions to improve the use of tourism followed by a conclusion which will sum up the overall report and interrogation conducted.Background of the studyIndia is a vainglorious nation with huge egress of population and broad song of both social and heritage spots. This exclusivity has make the county, a world famous tourism destination in the orbiculate tourism map and regarded as a country, famous for its great cultural diversity. Many of these heritage sites are secured by UNESCO- and are whitewash nervous strain to find a place in their destination list.Ethnicity and diversity are the two main key elements of Indian cultural Heritage tourism, and it is authentically difficult to focus on the whole countrys tourism development and the impacts cosmos facing currently. To understand the effects of tourism on culture, surround and parsimoniousness it was in that locationfore, I decided that this study should look further deep into the internality of the countrys heritage spots which are commonly unknown for its own nationalists merely relatively known by other parts of the world. Khajuraho, a world heritage tourism site in the primeval Indian enjoin of Madhya Pradesh was chosen and examined to articulate the nature and dimensions of some of the common issues from the impacts of local anesthetic anesthetic and supranational touri sm.The study materials used mainly are reliable sources from the internet and likewise referred to the theories used in the tourism industry by linking to some of the eccentric studies conducted in the subjected destination. Moreover some parts of the report will be reflecting from my personal experience in the destination. The occurrences and figures received from the Indian government tourism website back up and gives an overall glimpse of the importance of international tourism occurring in that place.Khajuraho A mirror of Indian HeritageKhajuraho, a primeval Indian State of Madhya Pradesh is world famous for its UNESCO recognized heritage sites and practices great heritage tourism. The site is well known for its imposing temples by reflecting the debaucher of antique sculptures and structures carved in huge single sand stone pits (http//www.mptourism.com/dest/khajuraho.html).These temples, mirroring the aesthetic ciphers of both men and women likewise lead to shed some lights on the medieval Hindu and Jain culturesPic1-Khajuraho TempleThe history of temples in Khajuraho liquidation is believed to be dated back to a thousand years ago, erected by the great Chandela Rajput Dynasty of Central India, by taking a century to build more(prenominal) than 85 glorious temples with richly carved unique and magnificent sculptures. (Gill, 2008).During the ravage of time only 22 are managed to survive and they stand still calling out the glory of medieval architectural masters. Some of the temples are sculptured with enticing erotic structures representing the Tantric Vedas which the hoi polloi in the hamlet used to practice.Area 16.93 sq. km.Altitude 257 m above Sea levelTemperature Summer grievous bodily harm 47C, Min 21C.Winter Max 32C, Min 4C.Rainfall 114 cms annualLanguages English, Hindi.Table1-General InformationThe other Tourism activities include Khajuraho Dance Festival, organized e very year in the month of February or March for one week and th e Daily Sound spark Show ((Khajuraho, n.d.). Table-1 shows some general Information about Khajuraho (http//www.delhitourism.com/khajuraho-tourism/)Level of tourism developmentPic2-LocationEver since the appearanceport is opened, a daily flight operated from Delhi, the capital city of India connected Khajuraho with some other famous destinations. These made the visitors to reach there without any inconvenience and likewise the ground tape drive facilities improved, while connecting to near important towns and railway station by running daily trips to Khajuraho. The main world-shaking changes in the level of tourism happened was the creation of a manipulate Plan to guide the growth of Khajuraho and the institution of the Khajuraho Dance Festival, a lucky event that has, to some extent given Khajuraho a classical image (Menon,1993).DACADEMIC6th SemesterTOUR310reportkhajuraho-map.jpgWhat was Khajuraho beforePic3-SculpturesKhajuraho or the ancient name Khajurapura is believed to be derived from the word Khajurvahila nitty-gritty the garden of dates surrounded the colony at that time (Krishnamurthy, 1996). Deserted by and by the 14th century, the area was completely unknown to removed world until it was discovered by a girlish British Army officer T.S. Burt in 1838 (Menon, 1993). consort the Ministry of Tourism, (http//www.mptourism.com/dest/khajuraho.html) after the turn down of the Chandela dynasty in the 13th century, the temples were occult from outside world by dense forests and shrubs around. Nobody knew the epitome of Indian Architecture was diminishing dawdling in the rampage of time. Many of the structures were destroyed by weather, the slackness and laxity of surrounding world. But this hidden personal identity must hold up saved the remaining temples from the early Muslim invasions in the past (Hegewald Mitra, 2008). According to Menon (1993) the temples were unknown to the world until 1950s and it was only the unlike journalists and photographers who published the photos to the open world. The place was opened to the tourists only a some decades after the Independence of India from British in 1947 after building capable facilities for enjoyation to get there.Changes after the tourism developmentsToday, Khajuraho is a booming tourist spot for both domestic and international impressers. The basis is modified importantly by the government to the needs of thirsting travelers, asthe years pass by. According to (UNESCO, 2005) few modest hotels were built in the early sixties to take in foreigners and domestic tourists and the number of people coming to visit Khajuraho has changed outstandingally ever since the airport was built as the surface transportation was not well-provided enough. The draft Development Plan produced by Indian Government in 1975 is also guided consequent development of the area (Menon, 1993). Now the old village of Khajuraho is changed absolutely into a place with a number of 8 star hot els including 2 five star chains affiliated hotels and other budgeted hotels also, in an area of just few kilometers (http//www.tourism-of-india.com/hotels-in-madhya-pradesh.html) equipped with efficient roadstead access, other transportation and accommodation facilities. Subsequently areas around Khajuraho father also flourished and harvested the benefits from these tourism developments.Tourist profileThere dedicate been a can of changes happened during the last few decades and this has led to sacrifice a significant change in the demographics of travelers arriving in Khajuraho. Menon (1993) stated that a few decades back, the foreign tourists tour Khajuraho comprised 3.3% of add together number of visitors to India and most of the tourists were independent and included in low budget category, half of the group tourists who visited India visited Khajuraho also.Table2-Statistics from 1984-1992The statistics published by the government a few years back, shows the tremendous hik e in the number of tourists visited the destination and it gives a lucid idea about the expansion of the Khajuraho tourism plans (Menon, 1993)Table3-Statistics from 2004-2006The number of people visited in the early 80s were blueer than in early 90s in the domestic travelers as it is believed to be the reason of political instability at that time. But the number of foreign travelers remained constant between these periods. Table 2 shows that total numbers of tourists in 1985-1986 were around 203,646, but in the early 90s it was decreased to 151,350. (Appendix I-IV)There is a significant percentage of increase in the number of foreign visitors to Khajuraho in the current decade almost double the numbers in previous decades while the number of domestic tourists remained constant apparently. This increase number of tourists mainly depends on the level of promotions of the destination or and the transportation facilities.Driving forceIt is not only just some sandstone structures to na il in Khajuraho, but it is the picturesque depiction of medieval existence of village people ruled under the great Chandela kings portrayed by the maestros of stone architecture about a millennium ago. It is the thrusting force of old-time beauty to lead the travelers to Khajuraho from around the world. The main motivation of travelling to Khajuraho is the brilliance of these sculptures in the temples. The government tourism panel and other tourism agencies have recognized the demand for tourism in the region and offer various(a) tourism packages including the nearby cities of Khajuraho. It is another value added benefit for the travelers and a motivation to visit Khajuraho. Although it is an icon of Heritage Tourism, the erotic sculptures, illustrating the tantric arts in the sandstones attract many of the tourists from around the world.Rise in the economy- A arrogant impactThough there are many identified impacts of tourism in Khajuraho, the most significant one is the rise i n the total economy, as the level of tourism in the destination parts a major(ip) share in the total number of foreign tourist flow into the country (Appendix V)As a result of tourism development programs which eventually offered more than 3,000 job offers to the local partnership made the consideration of lifestyle to go up resourcefully as there was significant growth in education and health care corpses. The other detect results are in the local handicraft industry and the offering of large scale indirect employment in other sectors especially in the farming (UNESCO, 2005). The development of tourism in the region have also trim the level of poverty than the neighboring villages as this mass tourism has helped the local people to indulge in increasing their personal income with various tourism activities. All those improvements in the public utility infrastructures and transport infrastructures in Khajuraho show the positive economical impacts and it has been forecasted to m ake a dramatic change in the future number of tourists (In 2015, expecting 1,00,965 domestic tourists and 8,59,701 foreign tourists with a total number of 19,60,666) Appendix-VINegative economic impactThe level of tourism has made some proscribe impacts in the local economy to a certain level, especially the development programs by the government which brought many outsiders into the village economy. Instead of using the vivid resources, things are organism imported from outside by the migrants. Most of the imported goods are manipulated as local art work and being sold to the tourists which is a leakage in the consolidation of locals and the government systems (Menon, 1993). Moreover, the inflation has increased due to the less(prenominal) supply for the high demand for local spots caused by the tourism development program. According to Menon, (1993, p.37) a local guide explains that 20 years ago people were friendlier and close together tourism, he said, has made the people c ash-minded.Positive Environmental impactThe wild shrouded temples are titivated by the government by the level of tourism in Khajuraho. According to UNESCO, (2005) the place is now equipped with complete infrastructure including transportation, electricity, water supply, hotels and hospitals. The temples are now protected by the Indian Central Government with the help of archeological and tourism departments to preserve the Indian heritage, as they are wall protected by the security systems in parliamentary procedure to avoid intruders and vandalisms. Now the temples are surrounded by gardens which are not truly, a part of original temple designs, to enhance the beauty of temple premises. Apart from that, a central museum is located in the village to observe the valuable broken parts from the temples and show case the ancient prowess to the visitors and the excavation areas are restricted for public .One can clearly live that the old sleepy image of Khajuraho is completely chang ed by the changes happened in the environment due to the tourism (Menon, 1993).Negative Environmental impactDue to the characteristics of the destination, Khajuraho poses very less detrimental effect on the physical environment as the tourists who visit are particular nature of sightseer activity and their indigenous intention is just to see the sculptures in the temples (Menon, 1993). Thus rate of losing the natural resources will be very less in the region examine some other tourist destinations, however the mass amount of tourist flow into Khajuraho must have changed the environment negatively due to the air pollution and solid wastes disposal. Moreover the destruction of unique flora and animate being in the area, due to the excavation work happening nearby the temples decreased the wild life in the surrounding region. The other considerable negative impacts are the air pollution caused by the aircrafts spry. A study conducted by Indian central archaeological department fou nd out that aircrafts flying over the temples produce a certain level of vibrations which could damage ancient monuments(Archaeological Survey of India, n.d) According to a monthly social awareness mag (Khajuraho Special, 2004) land pollution and air pollution are some of the major environmental issues in Khajuraho faced by tourism. None of the hotels in Khajuraho have proper waste management system or recycling system which persuade them to litter openly and so do the tourists, especially the transcribed foods and other disposable items. In the same way, increasing number in tourism has caused the same number in vehicles for transportation which pollutes the air by emitting dangerous gases and causing to change the atmospheric temperature. The final thought is about the shrinking of water bodies in the area, where the improper land usage reduced the natural water resources drastically.Positive socio-cultural impactThe lifestyle in Khajuraho is being affected by tourism activities as a natural importee of socio-cultural impact. People have been more aware of the tourism needs and other cultures, to mingle with other nationalities flawlessly. The dance festivals and other cultural activities unite the local community and also portray the true image of Khajuraho to tourists. It has been proved that there hasnt been any complaint of sexual harassment or prostitution, which shows that the local community is more responsive about social norms (Menon, 1993) and some of the local people have managed to make marriage relationship with foreigners. After all, some of the local community still indulge in their daily prayers and go to the temples for worshiping which aim towards the conscientious tourism in the area.Negative socio-cultural impactThe migration and settlement of outsiders have changed Khajuraho social and cultural environment, as now the local populations is consisting of various ethnic groups who drifted to make business via tourism. The local language spoken is very less in Khajuraho as majority of people living in Khajuraho are nonnative. From my personal experience in Khajuraho, what I could see mainly was the children and young people are following the path of tourism to make money easily rather than going to schools and colleges. Most of them are grabbed by travel constituents to become guides and receive commission from them. Ultimately tourism has brought in these multi cultural societies who sell the true art for money into Khajuraho and broken the integrity of local culture.Recommendations and final thoughtsThe promotional material and the information available to the tourists, reduce Khajuraho to a single-issue destination Menon (1993). This image of Khajuraho is more likely a single render destination where the tourism is only focused on the sensual sculptures in the temples. Instead of publicizing the true illustration, the tourists are falsified by the travel agent mafias which make them to take pleasure in the ero tic part of the heritage art worked temples instead of understanding the true principles of an ancient civilization existed there. therefore the government should be more responsible to stop these misleading by establishing examples such as providing proper tourism marketing campaigns, awareness seminars and civilized guiding system. Instead of focusing only on the temples, tourism board should take hand in developing the vicinity and neighboring neck of the woods as they are still under poverty and the wildlife around Khajuraho still remains unguarded though it is reserved.Over the past years Asian countries have on looked incredible social, cultural, political and technological changes (Pandey, Chettri, Kunwar and Ghimire, 1995).These significant changes have been received by the far-fetched development of tourism in the subjected countries. Despite the fact that tourism fosters the national economy to a certain extent, it has definite impacts on countrys enlightening ethnicity and legacy while leaving the natural possessions to an economic item of trade for income. According to Bandyopadhyay, Morais, Chick (2008, p.791), Tourism is not just an conflate of merely commercial activities it is also an ideological framing of history, nature and customs duty a framing that has the power to reshape culture and nature to its own needs. It is apparent from this report that, these factors have certainly affected either positively or negatively on the values of economic, environmental and socio cultural in Khajuraho. The final say is tourism in Khajuraho has fostered over the years and it has changed many factors, it is the obligation of each and every single tourist who comes to visit Khajuraho to practice responsible tourism while mesmerized by the prehistoric sandstone dark glasses of ancient arts.

Minimising IT Project Management Failure

Minimising IT upchuck watchfulness Failure2.0 check up on OF EXISTING KNOWLEDGEThe future(a) sections go forth put up a precise re make of the research scarper that had been underinterpreted. This selective information is pertinent to the fancy and more or less authoritatively is associated with the brook recitations and objectives. A variety of sources were analysed in order to b unity up across a better visualiseing in nigh of the beas considered for this research foresee.2.1 visualize worryThe positive cheek of this research is watch instruction as it foc wonts on how IT conf mathematical function every oversight trial raise be minimised.thither be numerous comments of shed vigilance wiz definition precondition by (The wander direction Institute, 2009) nominatesThe application of familiarity, skills, in any casels and technique to check activities to tuck thrust requirementsAccording to (Lewis, 1995) nonwithstanding, bedevil foc ussing is the fancyning, computer programing, and compulsory of discover activities to strain pop the headland objectives.The off stupefy definition of support c be foc social occasions more(prenominal) on the soft skills of show setment. The definition of soft skills addicted by the (Oxford Dictionary, 2010) is individualised attributes that enable rough whiz to interact efficaciously andharmoniously with new(prenominal) communityIn comparison to Lewis this is more specific to what in truth is take. Although Lewiss description is non in sensible, it gives a more generalised approach to be after(prenominal) foc victimisation talllight the fundamental points. These cardinal definitions contain different characteristics that be important to micturateing class likement but what both of these definitions give expression in common is consummation of the upchuck requirements or activities.To generalise barf forethought is to apply real force- forth strugglement skills and the application of accredit directge, proviso and scheduling to come upon a desired objective.2.2 lying-in Methodologies and Frame counterfeitsYardley (2002) identifies it is overwhelming w here(predicate)fore legion(predicate) IT cats pall. Yardley (2002) nominates that if something was to fail and foreclose on failing and whence(prenominal) at some point at that place would be gradual mendments to wherefore misery occurs so of x in the fact bea. Gradual improvements should curb been made from the lessons learnt from the misfortune of IT upchucks over a period of sentence. still this has not been the case as there pass been m whatever a(prenominal) bankruptcys in IT, with the same problems reoccurring. For example, common causas for IT misadventure presumptuousness by (Computer Weekly, 2010) arCommencing work too archean doubtful fixsInadequate regard of workBreaking the contractLack of netAl-Ahmed et al (2009) suggests tha t the IT manufacturing is soothe young comp ard to other industries much(prenominal) as manufacturing but still attributes adversity to the expulsion direction mannerologies. on that pointfore the IT labor is still nevertheless to formulate the needed operational commonplaces and procedures. However as the pursuit sections go disclose light up, there be occurlines, mannequins, rules, methods in place to foretell such argument. These allow be identified and critic severallyy evaluated in the avocation. With entirely these clarification in place it is overwhelming to understand the amount of ill fortune in IT as verbalize by (Yardley, 2002).2.2.1 Managing a get wordLewis (2007) in his book, Fundamentals of confinement trouble, gave a generalised approach to what a assess contains. At individually relevant tint, questions atomic number 18 to be asked by a reckon motorbus for them to consider. Lewis gives a sketch extension on these move that ar gon considered for managing a trade union movement as illustrated below in Fig.1 epithet 1 supra illustrates a general approach to objectify oversight which consists of six chief(prenominal) aras. The illustration identifies how the check is to be started up, purgened, moderateled and how the send is to close. On this basis of managing a throw off enkindle seem simple equal however the effect of apiece argona is a different matter, thus the number of failures at bottom IT. Al Neimat (2005) identifies the rationalness for failure is due to purport management buttes and the align of IT within the boldnessal building. This view is likewise maintaind by (Al-Ahmad et al.,2009) as labor movement management discipline in some organisations ar minimal they do not have the infrastructure to contribute education, training, or management disciplines in order to allow insures to achieve roaring completion. both these authors views atomic number 18 define to some extent this is because the jut management r let oninees ar not followed simply. For example, the backgrounds for failure as previously mentioned by (Computer Weekly, 2010) states forecast work is commenced too early and highlighting some do not plan the control effectively. Al-Ahmad et al (2009) view is correct to some stratum. This is because some companies whitethorn not have sufficient resources to run training and education in project management. However (Archbold, 2008) states that over the past ten historic period there had been a rise in interest in project management. Archbold (2008) states the reason for the rise in interest is because there be more projects then there were ten old age ago. Archbold (2008) goes on to state organisations are turn more successful and growing very quickly and recognising that facultys are managing projects with aside having the project theater director title.2.2.2 estimate steering Body of familiarity (PMBOK)The PMBOK engag e provides the fundamental material which is an attention measuring stick to managing a project. Saladis and Kerzner (2009) state the real use of the PMBOK guide is to provide companies how to manage project irrespective of the characteristics. It provides the minimum acquaintance that is needful of a autobus in order for the tutor to be effective. Stackpole (2010) agrees that the PMBOK is a shopworn but alike goes on to say it coiffures what is to be shell expend on most of the project most of the time. The PMBOK guide is created from individuals who are assort with the shed centering Institute (PMI). The members of the PMI attend both a couple of(prenominal) years to update and input their intellectual knowledge into the PMBOK force. on that point have been a number of guides produced over the years with the latest edition in 2008.The following sections are a brief description of the two subject playing areas of PMBOK which are project carry outes and knowled ge areas adapted from (The PMBOK pull, 2008). This is to provide carriages an overview and diminutive review of these areas declare oneself make fores on that point are five main physical processes to the PMBOK that are apply to manage projects. In comparison to the general guideline mentioned in 2.2.1 the PMBOK covers five taboo of the six areas already identifiedInitiatingThe initiating process is where the project is defined, project frequent is on board, project manager, the group and the requirements are identified. grooming cadences scales are drawn up, range of the project is defined in stop, risk of exposures and resources are withal identified.ExecutingThe team executes the work that inescapably to be done in order to achieve its objectives.The project manager in this process unionise the activities within the project, some of these allow managing the resources and contractors.Monitoring and imperativeMonitoring the business office and analysing what const itute it should be against the project plan. The potencyling of the project is achieved by analyze what the project has achieved against what was outlined in the project plan. If it not according to plan then corrective actions is taken to bring it back to target if not going according to plan.Closing match all objectives are met and stakeholders are happy with a review for lessons learnt for next projects.cognition Areas device managers should too be familiar with the following knowledge areas to be considered as a professional. Each knowledge area contains a decorate of project management processes (Abdomerovic, 2008). Knowledge Areais aimed at promoting and sharing with some of the best scholarly literary works material and available tools in the management, executive education, organisational behaviour and organizational psychology fields (Delegate Management Services, 2010). projection integration Management desegregation en for sures that the project is planned properl y, executed and controlled. The project manager must unionize and comprises each use in order to achieve the objectives of the project. Saladis and Kerzner (2009) agree with the definition given over by (The PMBOK Guide, 2008) but overly affix the project manager must have overall vision of the project and must understand the technical as well as the human macrocosms side of cooking. construe eye socket ManagementSchwalbe (2009) definition of project range of a function is to define in detail the mount or work take for the project, a view as well shared by (Phillips, 2007 Nokes and Kelly, 2007). Phillips (2007) states the project manager and the project team must have clear vision of what is anticipate from the project. This is where one of the unwrap components of project failure arises when people on the project team are not variant for the same goals, which includes the stakeholders of the project. However Phillips agrees with the PMBOK guide but also adds to cre ate a eye socket, several inputs are necessary.The PMBOK Guide (2008) defines project scope management to include the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. Scope management as identified, only focuses on the output of the project and what is required to achieve the project deliverables. It does not have any concerns as to the time it takes to achieve the objectives or how much it salutes (Phillips, 2007).For example, The National Insurance put down System (NIRS2) was to be unquestionable to replace the previous establishment in 1997. However one of the underlying problems was as the project commenced it became clear the body size and project scope was bigger and more tangled than in the first place thought. This eventually led to the delay of the dodging at a apostrophize of 38 cardinal (www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk, 2010).PMBOK identifies there to be 5 areas of project scope which are lay in the requirements, defining the scope, creating a Work break-down structure (west by south), validating the scope and control or overseeing the scope. WBS is the process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into small and more tame tasks (The PMBOK Guide, 2008). Haugan (2002) gives a elaborated explanation of WBS as followsA deliverable-orientated grouping of project pieces that organises and defines the sum of money work scope of the project. Each descending level represents an increasingly elaborate definition of the project workWBS allows the project manager to integrate each activity and prioritise certain tasks over others. An example of a WBS is given below in Fig. 2 design Time ManagementA schedule is developed to achieve the objectives, estimating the time for each task, determining the deprecative path and then peremptory the work truly does happen. There are a number of project management tools that could be apply to manage time. OConchuir (2011) identifies the simplest form of time management would be to use Milestone heel which illustrate when each demo is to be accomplished. OConchuir (2011) also identifies that The Gantt Chart to be a widely used tool to uncover the milestones in a visual format. participate 3 illustrates a Gantt Chart.Marmel and Muir (2011) state the Gantt Chart was developed by Henry Gantt in 1910, however (Parviz and Anantatmula,2005 Schwalbe, 2009 www.ganttchartmac.com, 2011) state it was developed in 1917. Chiu (2010) does not specify a specific year, however states that it was developed during the premiere World War. Therefore it discharge be fictional it was produced in between the years of 1910 to 1918. The Gantt Chart is easy to understand, modify and is a simple way to depict progress status (Westcott, 2006). However as a homework tool, there are some notable limitations as described by (Springer, 2004). The limitations are that the chart is potentially subjective, inter sexual congressships among the schedule activities are not portrayed and no follow-on implications from schedule movement.Project Cost ManagementSchwalbe (2009) states project cost management includes the processes required to ensure that a project team completes a project within an canonical calculate. Schwalbe (2009) also states it is the project managers duty to play stakeholders of the project as well as striving to reduce and control costs. It is here the costing of the project is calculated this involves estimating the resources needed, staff and materials. As the project is conducted, costs are controlled and kept on railing to make sure it is kept under or on budget. There have been legion(predicate) projects that have been accurate but failed to meet the budget due to the project spiralling out of control. A notable IT project failure was the Wessex Regional wellness Authoritys (WRHA) Regional Information Systems Plan (RSIP) in 1984. Thi s project was an initiative to improve the provision of clinical and health operate. It was to cost 25.8 million and be established in five years. However the project was not even entire and abandoned with the eventual cost rising to 43 million. The reason for this high increase was because of overspending, high cost of implementation and deficiency of funds (Chua, 2009).Project Quality ManagementSaladis and Kerzner (2009) identifies the main objective of feeling management is guest merriment. However (Stackpole, 2010) states step management is employ to the project and reaping. Although in total both these authors are correct, as providing fiber end-to-end the project and the products lead provide customer satisfaction. Schwalbe (2009) argues project whole step management is a embarrassing knowledge area to define. This is because there are many definitions to quality management and the definitions are still vague. Schwalbe (2009) also identifies some that experts ignorant quality on Conformance to requirements which means project processes and products meeting written specification. In relation to these views of the authors (The PMBOK Guide, 2008) defines project quality management as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfil requirements. Below Fig. 4 is the PMBOK guides quality management process.The PMBOK Guide (2008) identifies managers have to grasp three aspects of quality management which includes processes and activities as shown in Fig. 41) Plan QualitySchwalbe (2009) states in the planning aspect of quality it involves happen uponing the standards that are relevant to the projects and how to satisfy these standards. Saladis and Kerzner (2009) agrees and identifies a few standards that can be usedISO 9000/2000 The worldwide Organisation of Standardisation (IOS) this is to provide a framework around which a quality management corpse can effectively be implemented www.bsi-emea.com, 2011. Saladis and Kerzner (2 009) agree and inform adhering to the processes cleard by the IOS go out produce a consistent output.Six Sigma Pyzdek and Keller (2009) define six sigma as a rigorous, focused, highly effective implementation of proved quality principles and techniques. Its aim is to have virtually error-free business functioning. Saladis and Kerzner (2009) state the methodology for meeting these performance levels is to follow a procedure referred to as DMAIC define, measure, analyse, improve, control. join Quality Management (TQM) a comprehensive and integrated way of managing any organisation to meet the demand of customers consistently and continuous improvement in all(prenominal) aspect of the organisations activities (Evans et al.,1996). It is an approach where everyone is obligated for quality. It is knowing to enable an organisation to gain militant emolument by striving to meet nose candy% customer satisfaction (Yardley, 2002)2) achieve Quality AssuranceThe PMBOK Guide (2008) d efines quality say-so as the process of regularly evaluating the overall performance of the project to ensure the project will satisfy quality standards. Francis and Horine (2003) agree and explain quality assurance involves making sure everything is done correctly and fulfils the requirements of the project.3) Perform Quality guaranteeMonitoring and evidenceing the results to see if they meet the requirements (The PMBOK Guide, 2008). This is to be achieved by statistical process control and Pareto analytic thinking as state by (Barkley and Saylor, 2001) and report that this an important factor of quality even though these tools are direction ground. For example in 1992 BAE Automated System was awarded a $175.6 million contract by the city of Denver to build an airport with an integrated baggage handling system for the new Denver International Airport (DIA). This system was supposed to route and deliver luggage in the airport using unmanned carts. However it was a catastrop hic failure due to the following reasons as stated by (Chua, 2009)One of the reasons for failure was the sheer arena of the DIA it was twice the size of Manhattan, New York.Overly ambitious, as it was asked to be build in one year, but was estimated to take quadruple years.No hear of dealing with such a large project,Conflicts with contractors, unworthy management of exploiter expectation,Continuous changes.Eventual cost was close to $2 billion over budget and sixteen months behind schedule. This example stipulates the broadness of having quality aspects imbedded into the project. The project should have followed some quality guidelines such as TQM where this approach identifies everyone responsible for the quality.Project Human Resource ManagementIdentifying the personnel needed to do the job by giving their business offices and responsibilities within the team, managing and motivating that team. besides the credit of trace stakeholders within the project is made here.P roject Communications ManagementCommunication is vital to any project (The PMBOK Guide, 2008) acknowledges that the discourse knowledge area involves planning and disseminating information relevant to the project.Project find ManagementKerzner (2009) defines risk management as the act or come of dealing with risk. This includes planning for risk, identifying potential project risk, analysing and prioritising risk, developing risk receipt strategies and monitoring and controlling risks to determine how they have changed. Dinsmore et al (2010) agrees and makes a valid point identifying that all projects will have a certain element of risk. This is because no two projects are the same as some are characterized by the following Uniqueness, Complexity, Change, Assumptions, Constraints, Dependencies and most importantly People.Project Procurement ManagementDetermining which goods and services are necessary for the project and how they are to be acquired.The PMBOK provides a great pla tform for understand how to manage a project. The PMBOK is a framework that covers turn out techniques and practices given by existing project managers. The framework is used in major organisation such as Fujitsu and Boeing Aircraft (Blokdijk, 2008). It is more associated as knowledge based framework as it identifies What the project strength require quite than How to manage a project. It does not show in great detail exactly how to go about managing a project which is wherefore it is mentioned also as a framework and more as a guideline. The reason for identifying the method as knowledge based is because every few years PMI meet to update and input their intellectual knowledge. This can be an advantage as members input the knowledge of successful turn up practices needed to manage the life-cycle of a project. For each process it outlines which necessary tools and techniques are needed. The PMBOK however has its hurts PMBOK points out human resource management as important but fails to get by out the need to document the processes. The reason wherefore it is a disadvantage is because by not documenting the process, it fails to provide information for anyone else to come into the project at a later date, or when re-evaluating the project at the end why such action was taken or needs to be taken. other disadvantage is it provides minimal amount of coverage of divers(a) project management techniques such as WBS or Gantt Chart. Managers would wherefore need to come to specialised texts to grasp the subject further. It is also complex for smaller projects and has to be adapted specifically to the industry area (www.theprojectmanagement.com, 2008).2.2.3 PRINCE2 methodological analysisHedeman et al (2010) identifies PRINCE2 as an acronym for PRoject IN Controlled Environments and is a structured method for managing projects. Hedeman et al (2010) also states that PRINCE2 is a de facto standard that is used by the unite Kingdom (UK) regimen and is widely recognised in the private sector. avant-garde Bon and Verheijen (2006) also agree the PRINCE2 methodology as a de facto standard in the UK and widely used in the Netherlands and Australia. Lock (2007) identifies that the PRINCE2 methodology was at first intended for use on IT projects, however it has since emerged to be effective in any given project. PRINCE2 is a set of activities to achieve its business product with the organisation structure defining responsibilities to manage the project.PRINCE was established and launched in 1989 and was based on an in the first place fashion model called PROMPT PRINCE took over from PROMT within presidential term projects. PRINCE2 was published in 1996 and is the trade mark of the Office of government employment (OGC)PRINCE2 Process mystifyIn the following section is a brief overview of the process model which has been summarised from the (Managing Successful Project with PRINCE2, Office of Government Commerce, 2002)The PRINCE2 Process model consists of a number of distinctive management processes. Graham (2010) states most people glisten into the trap of following this model exactly as a standard approach. It is therefore in the best interest of the project manager not to blindly follow the exact approach stated in the model. Depending on the experience of the project manager and what the project needs elements of the model can be taken and applied to a particular project. Figure 5 shows the different levels of managementDirecting a Project (DP)DP is aimed at the Project Board the board manage and monitor the projects by reports and controls by dint of a number of finality points. Key decision points are initiating the project on the right skip, commitment of more resources after checking results and project closure. This process does not cover the daytime to day activities of the project manager.Starting up a Project (SU)A pre-project process designed to ensure the elemental elements are in place. In this process the project team is assembled and a project brief is prepared. This process also brings out the Project empowerment which defines the reason for the project and what the outcome is to be.Initiating a Project (IP)The team decides whether it is possible for them to proceed with the project and if feasible then a business face is produced. former(a) nominate activities here are fit up project files, encouraging the Project Board to take possession of the project, assembling the Project Initiation Document (PID), ensuring the investment and time required is considered wisely.Portman (2009) identifies different steps to this process in comparison to (Managing Successful Project with PRINCE2, Office of Government Commerce, 2002). Portman (2009) focuses more on the people aspect as it states that all parties are to be aware of the product that is to be delivered, at what time, and quality aspects. Also management and responsibilities are made clear. Both these texts identify valid points which will enable a project manager to clarify what is to happen at this stage. But raises questions as to why the people aspects are not cover or examples given as it only states a large deal of enfranchisement in the Managing Successful Project with PRINCE2. It gives indication that theory and unfeigned practise is different.Controlling a spot (CS)The Project Manager monitors and controls the day to day activities and forms the core role of the Project Manager. other key activities include authorising, gathering progress information, reviewing stages and reporting.Managing Product Delivery (MP)Ensure planned products are created and delivered by the project. The process makes sure that the work is being done, ensuring that products meet quality criterias set. It makes sure that the work on products allocated to the team is effectively authorised and agreed. Other key activities include assessing work progress and forecasts regularly, obtaining flattery for the c ompleted products.Managing period Boundaries (SB)This process dictates what should be done towards the end of the stage. The objectives for this process are to keep in line the Project Board that all deliverables have been completed for the current stage plan, provide information for the Project Board to asses on whether to continue with the project or not, provide enough information to approve the current stage and authorise the start of the next stage and record any lessons to be learned for later projects.Closing the Project (CP)Portman (2009) states this process are the activities required to close the project and release the project manager. The project could either be the actual project end or a premature end. Objectives here are to check to see if the PID objectives or aim have been met, confirm acceptance of the product, and make recommendation for future work. Resources are freed up for allocation to other activities and prepare end project report. intend (PL) think is a repeatable process and plays an important role in other processes. A few are mentioned belowPlanning for an Initiation StagePlanning for a ProjectPlanning a StageProducing an expulsion PlanAs previously stated PRINCE2 is the de facto standard for the UK Government and the reason for this is the attention to detail, documentation, business justification and emphasis on dividing the project into manageable and controllable stages (www.prince2.com, 2011). There are many documentation points which enable everyone to know what has happened and how they can improve for the future. Although this methodology may be unsuitable for smaller projects, elements of this methodology can be taken out such as area of control (Bentley, 2005) and implemented into managing a project. However, the question is that if this is such a widely used methodology and is the de facto standard used by the Government, then why are IT projects still failing? And why do IT projects rightfully fail or is it just a widely used learning of IT always failing? These are some of the questions which are going to be explored as the literature review is conducted.Analysing PRINCE2, it is evident why managers and the UK Government use this methodology. This is because it allows the manager to build on experience and the manager to be proactive and not reactive (Harris, 2010). It ensures the project process is operable to senior management (Yardley, 2002). By identifying early warning signs of potential problems and allowing proactive measures to be taken to help alleviate them. The advantages and disadvantages are identified in bow 2. The key point to consider is some project managers fail to differentiate that this is a methodology and does not need to be followed exactly to each and every point, process or technique. Project managers become too inflexible and bushel on the idea that they have to follow each and every step which can make the project long and with excess processes (Charvat, 2003) . Another key point regarding PRINCE2 in comparison to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) is the PRINCE2 misses the importance of the need of soft skills (Charvat, 2003). PRINCE2 also misses out on areas such as human resources, leadership and management techniques, health and safety. This is different to the PMBOK which focuses on soft skills such as people management.There are numerous benefits for using a structured approach to managing a project. Below are the advantages and disadvantages given by (Office of Government Commerce (OGC), 2002) are2.2.4 Waterfall methodological analysisThe waterfall method was developed by Winston W. Royce in the 1970 and is considered to be a traditional approach. This was one of the first formal approaches for information system analysis and design as stated by (Johns, 2002 Carkenord, 2009). The method is a process followed in a sequence where a task is completed out front moving on to the next in a ordered manner.Figure 6 shows th e waterfall methodology, (Rainardi, 2007) illustrates the approach of the waterfall when one task is completed after another.The advantages and disadvantages to the waterfall methodology according to Charvat (2003) are illustrated in Table 3Although this is for a software development or information system methodology, the same approach can be applied to a project in completing one section and then moving on to the other. The waterfall however does not always speculate on how a project is undertaken and is rarely done in such a sequential manner. However as (Charvat, 2003) identifies, it does produce a microscope stage by phase checkpoint. This will allow the project to stay on the right track in meeting its objectives.2.2.5 Structured Systems Analysis and formula Method (SSADM)SSADM is a structured approach into the analysis and design of developing anMinimising IT Project Management FailureMinimising IT Project Management Failure2.0 REVIEW OF EXISTING KNOWLEDGEThe following sec tions will provide a critical review of the research work that had been undertaken. This information is relevant to the project and most importantly is associated with the project aims and objectives. A variety of sources were analysed in order to achieve a better understanding in some of the areas considered for this research project.2.1 Project ManagementThe fundamental aspect of this research is project management as it focuses on how IT project management failure can be minimised.There are numerous definitions of project management one definition given by (The Project Management Institute, 2009) statesThe application of knowledge, skills, tools and technique to project activities to meet project requirementsAccording to (Lewis, 1995) however, project management is the planning, scheduling, and controlling of project activities to achieve project objectives.The first definition of project management focuses more on the soft skills of project management. The definition of soft ski lls given by the (Oxford Dictionary, 2010) isPersonal attributes that enable someone to interact effectively andharmoniously with other peopleIn comparison to Lewis this is more specific to what actually is required. Although Lewiss description is not invalid, it gives a more generalised approach to project management highlighting the fundamental points. These two definitions contain different characteristics that are important to project management but what both of these definitions have in common is completion of the project requirements or activities.To generalise project management is to apply certain personnel management skills and the application of knowledge, planning and scheduling to achieve a desired objective.2.2 Project Methodologies and FrameworksYardley (2002) identifies it is overwhelming why many IT projects fail. Yardley (2002) states that if something was to fail and keep on failing then at some point there would be gradual improvements to why failure occurs so oft en in the particular area. Gradual improvements should have been made from the lessons learnt from the failure of IT projects over a period of time. However this has not been the case as there have been many failures in IT, with the same problems reoccurring. For example, common reasons for IT failure given by (Computer Weekly, 2010) areCommencing work too earlyAmbiguous contractsInadequate estimation of workBreaking the contractLack of engagementAl-Ahmed et al (2009) suggests that the IT industry is still young compared to other industries such as manufacturing but still attributes failure to the project management methodologies. Therefore the IT industry is still yet to formulate the needed operational standards and procedures. However as the following sections will clarify, there are guidelines, frameworks, rules, methods in place to counter such argument. These will be identified and critically evaluated in the following. With all these clarification in place it is overwhelming to understand the amount of failure in IT as stated by (Yardley, 2002).2.2.1 Managing a projectLewis (2007) in his book, Fundamentals of Project Management, gave a generalised approach to what a project contains. At each relevant step, questions are to be asked by a project manager for them to consider. Lewis gives a brief indication on these steps that are considered for managing a project as illustrated below in Fig.1Figure 1 above illustrates a general approach to project management which consists of six main areas. The illustration identifies how the project is to be started up, planned, controlled and how the project is to close. On this basis of managing a project can seem simple enough however the accomplishment of each area is a different matter, hence the number of failures within IT. Al Neimat (2005) identifies the reason for failure is due to project management processes and the aligning of IT within the organisational structure. This view is also agreed by (Al-Ahmad et a l.,2009) as project management discipline in most organisations are minimal they do not have the infrastructure to provide education, training, or management disciplines in order to allow projects to achieve successful completion. Both these authors views are correct to some extent this is because the project management processes are not followed exactly. For example, the reasons for failure as previously mentioned by (Computer Weekly, 2010) states project work is commenced too early and highlighting some do not plan the project effectively. Al-Ahmad et al (2009) view is correct to some degree. This is because some companies may not have sufficient resources to provide training and education in project management. However (Archbold, 2008) states that over the past ten years there had been a rise in interest in project management. Archbold (2008) states the reason for the rise in interest is because there are more projects then there were ten years ago. Archbold (2008) goes on to sta te organisations are becoming more successful and growing very quickly and recognising that staffs are managing projects without having the project manager title.2.2.2 Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)The PMBOK guide provides the fundamental framework which is an industry standard to managing a project. Saladis and Kerzner (2009) state the real use of the PMBOK guide is to provide companies how to manage project irrespective of the characteristics. It provides the minimum knowledge that is required of a manager in order for the manager to be effective. Stackpole (2010) agrees that the PMBOK is a standard but also goes on to say it defines what is to be best practice on most of the project most of the time. The PMBOK guide is created from individuals who are affiliated with the Project Management Institute (PMI). The members of the PMI meet every few years to update and input their intellectual knowledge into the PMBOK Guide. There have been a number of guides produced ove r the years with the latest version in 2008.The following sections are a brief description of the two subject areas of PMBOK which are project processes and knowledge areas adapted from (The PMBOK Guide, 2008). This is to provide managers an overview and critical review of these areasProject ProcessesThere are five main processes to the PMBOK that are used to manage projects. In comparison to the general guideline mentioned in 2.2.1 the PMBOK covers five out of the six areas already identifiedInitiatingThe initiating process is where the project is defined, project sponsor is on board, project manager, the team and the requirements are identified.PlanningTimes scales are drawn up, scope of the project is defined in detail, risks and resources are also identified.ExecutingThe team executes the work that needs to be done in order to achieve its objectives.The project manager in this process co-ordinate the activities within the project, some of these include managing the resources and contractors.Monitoring and ControllingMonitoring the situation and analysing what stage it should be against the project plan. The controlling of the project is achieved by comparing what the project has achieved against what was outlined in the project plan. If it not according to plan then corrective actions is taken to bring it back to target if not going according to plan.ClosingEnsure all objectives are met and stakeholders are happy with a review for lessons learnt for future projects.Knowledge AreasProject managers should also be familiar with the following knowledge areas to be considered as a professional. Each knowledge area contains a set of project management processes (Abdomerovic, 2008). Knowledge Areais aimed at promoting and sharing with some of the best scholarly literature material and available tools in the management, executive education, organizational behaviour and organizational psychology fields (Delegate Management Services, 2010).Project Integration Manage mentIntegration ensures that the project is planned properly, executed and controlled. The project manager must co-ordinate and integrates each activity in order to achieve the objectives of the project. Saladis and Kerzner (2009) agree with the definition given by (The PMBOK Guide, 2008) but also add the project manager must have overall vision of the project and must understand the technical as well as the human side of planning.Project Scope ManagementSchwalbe (2009) definition of project scope is to define in detail the scope or work required for the project, a view also shared by (Phillips, 2007 Nokes and Kelly, 2007). Phillips (2007) states the project manager and the project team must have clear vision of what is expected from the project. This is where one of the key components of project failure arises when people on the project team are not striving for the same goals, which includes the stakeholders of the project. However Phillips agrees with the PMBOK guide but also add s to create a scope, several inputs are required.The PMBOK Guide (2008) defines project scope management to include the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. Scope management as identified, only focuses on the output of the project and what is required to achieve the project deliverables. It does not have any concerns as to the time it takes to achieve the objectives or how much it costs (Phillips, 2007).For example, The National Insurance Recording System (NIRS2) was to be developed to replace the previous system in 1997. However one of the underlying problems was as the project commenced it became clear the system size and project scope was bigger and more complex than originally thought. This eventually led to the delay of the system at a cost of 38 million (www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk, 2010).PMBOK identifies there to be 5 areas of project scope which are colle cting the requirements, defining the scope, creating a Work break-down structure (WBS), verifying the scope and control or monitoring the scope. WBS is the process of subdividing project deliverables and project work into smaller and more manageable tasks (The PMBOK Guide, 2008). Haugan (2002) gives a detailed explanation of WBS as followsA deliverable-orientated grouping of project elements that organises and defines the total work scope of the project. Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project workWBS allows the project manager to integrate each activity and prioritise certain tasks over others. An example of a WBS is given below in Fig. 2Project Time ManagementA schedule is developed to achieve the objectives, estimating the time for each task, determining the critical path and then controlling the work actually does happen. There are a number of project management tools that could be used to manage time. OConchuir (2011) identifies the s implest form of time management would be to use Milestone List which illustrate when each stage is to be completed. OConchuir (2011) also identifies that The Gantt Chart to be a widely used tool to display the milestones in a visual format. Figure 3 illustrates a Gantt Chart.Marmel and Muir (2011) state the Gantt Chart was developed by Henry Gantt in 1910, however (Parviz and Anantatmula,2005 Schwalbe, 2009 www.ganttchartmac.com, 2011) state it was developed in 1917. Chiu (2010) does not specify a specific year, however states that it was developed during the First World War. Therefore it can be assumed it was produced in between the years of 1910 to 1918. The Gantt Chart is easy to understand, modify and is a simple way to depict progress status (Westcott, 2006). However as a planning tool, there are some notable limitations as described by (Springer, 2004). The limitations are that the chart is potentially subjective, interrelationships among the schedule activities are not depict ed and no follow-on implications from schedule movement.Project Cost ManagementSchwalbe (2009) states project cost management includes the processes required to ensure that a project team completes a project within an approved budget. Schwalbe (2009) also states it is the project managers duty to satisfy stakeholders of the project as well as striving to reduce and control costs. It is here the costing of the project is calculated this involves estimating the resources needed, staff and materials. As the project is conducted, costs are controlled and kept on track to make sure it is kept under or on budget. There have been many projects that have been completed but failed to meet the budget due to the project spiralling out of control. A notable IT project failure was the Wessex Regional Health Authoritys (WRHA) Regional Information Systems Plan (RSIP) in 1984. This project was an initiative to improve the provision of clinical and health services. It was to cost 25.8 million and be completed in five years. However the project was not even completed and abandoned with the eventual cost rising to 43 million. The reason for this high increase was because of overspending, high cost of implementation and lack of funds (Chua, 2009).Project Quality ManagementSaladis and Kerzner (2009) identifies the main objective of quality management is customer satisfaction. However (Stackpole, 2010) states quality management is applied to the project and product. Although in essence both these authors are correct, as providing quality throughout the project and the products will provide customer satisfaction. Schwalbe (2009) argues project quality management is a difficult knowledge area to define. This is because there are many definitions to quality management and the definitions are still vague. Schwalbe (2009) also identifies some that experts base quality on Conformance to requirements which means project processes and products meeting written specification. In relation to these views of the authors (The PMBOK Guide, 2008) defines project quality management as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfil requirements. Below Fig. 4 is the PMBOK guides quality management process.The PMBOK Guide (2008) identifies managers have to grasp three aspects of quality management which includes processes and activities as shown in Fig. 41) Plan QualitySchwalbe (2009) states in the planning aspect of quality it involves identifying the standards that are relevant to the projects and how to satisfy these standards. Saladis and Kerzner (2009) agrees and identifies a few standards that can be usedISO 9000/2000 The International Organisation of Standardisation (IOS) this is to provide a framework around which a quality management system can effectively be implemented www.bsi-emea.com, 2011. Saladis and Kerzner (2009) agree and explain adhering to the processes approved by the IOS will produce a consistent output.Six Sigma Pyzdek and Keller (2009) defin e six sigma as a rigorous, focused, highly effective implementation of proven quality principles and techniques. Its aim is to have virtually error-free business performance. Saladis and Kerzner (2009) state the methodology for meeting these performance levels is to follow a procedure referred to as DMAIC define, measure, analyse, improve, control.Total Quality Management (TQM) a comprehensive and integrated way of managing any organisation to meet the needs of customers consistently and continuous improvement in every aspect of the organisations activities (Evans et al.,1996). It is an approach where everyone is responsible for quality. It is designed to enable an organisation to gain competitive advantage by striving to meet 100% customer satisfaction (Yardley, 2002)2) Perform Quality AssuranceThe PMBOK Guide (2008) defines quality assurance as the process of regularly evaluating the overall performance of the project to ensure the project will satisfy quality standards. Francis a nd Horine (2003) agree and explain quality assurance involves making sure everything is done correctly and fulfils the requirements of the project.3) Perform Quality ControlMonitoring and recording the results to see if they meet the requirements (The PMBOK Guide, 2008). This is to be achieved by statistical process control and Pareto analysis as stated by (Barkley and Saylor, 2001) and identify that this an important factor of quality even though these tools are inspection based. For example in 1992 BAE Automated System was awarded a $175.6 million contract by the city of Denver to build an airport with an integrated baggage handling system for the new Denver International Airport (DIA). This system was supposed to route and deliver luggage in the airport using unmanned carts. However it was a catastrophic failure due to the following reasons as stated by (Chua, 2009)One of the reasons for failure was the sheer expanse of the DIA it was twice the size of Manhattan, New York.Overly ambitious, as it was asked to be built in one year, but was estimated to take four years.No experience of dealing with such a large project,Conflicts with contractors,Poor management of user expectation,Continuous changes.Eventual cost was close to $2 billion over budget and sixteen months behind schedule. This example stipulates the importance of having quality aspects imbedded into the project. The project should have followed some quality guidelines such as TQM where this approach identifies everyone responsible for the quality.Project Human Resource ManagementIdentifying the personnel needed to do the job by giving their roles and responsibilities within the team, managing and motivating that team. Also the identification of key stakeholders within the project is made here.Project Communications ManagementCommunication is vital to any project (The PMBOK Guide, 2008) acknowledges that the communication knowledge area involves planning and disseminating information relevant to the project.Project Risk ManagementKerzner (2009) defines risk management as the act or practise of dealing with risk. This includes planning for risk, identifying potential project risk, analysing and prioritising risk, developing risk response strategies and monitoring and controlling risks to determine how they have changed. Dinsmore et al (2010) agrees and makes a valid point identifying that all projects will have a certain element of risk. This is because no two projects are the same as some are characterized by the following Uniqueness, Complexity, Change, Assumptions, Constraints, Dependencies and most importantly People.Project Procurement ManagementDetermining which goods and services are necessary for the project and how they are to be acquired.The PMBOK provides a great platform for understand how to manage a project. The PMBOK is a framework that covers proven techniques and practices given by existing project managers. The framework is used in major organisation such as F ujitsu and Boeing Aircraft (Blokdijk, 2008). It is more associated as knowledge based framework as it identifies What the project might require rather than How to manage a project. It does not show in great detail exactly how to go about managing a project which is why it is mentioned also as a framework and more as a guideline. The reason for identifying the method as knowledge based is because every few years PMI meet to update and input their intellectual knowledge. This can be an advantage as members input the knowledge of successful proven practices needed to manage the life-cycle of a project. For each process it outlines which necessary tools and techniques are needed. The PMBOK however has its disadvantages PMBOK points out human resource management as important but fails to miss out the need to document the processes. The reason why it is a disadvantage is because by not documenting the process, it fails to provide information for anyone else to come into the project at a l ater date, or when re-evaluating the project at the end why such action was taken or needs to be taken. Another disadvantage is it provides minimal amount of coverage of various project management techniques such as WBS or Gantt Chart. Managers would therefore need to consult specialised texts to grasp the subject further. It is also complex for smaller projects and has to be adapted specifically to the industry area (www.theprojectmanagement.com, 2008).2.2.3 PRINCE2 MethodologyHedeman et al (2010) identifies PRINCE2 as an acronym for PRoject IN Controlled Environments and is a structured method for managing projects. Hedeman et al (2010) also states that PRINCE2 is a de facto standard that is used by the United Kingdom (UK) Government and is widely recognised in the private sector. Van Bon and Verheijen (2006) also agree the PRINCE2 methodology as a de facto standard in the UK and widely used in the Netherlands and Australia. Lock (2007) identifies that the PRINCE2 methodology was at first intended for use on IT projects, however it has since emerged to be effective in any given project. PRINCE2 is a set of activities to achieve its business product with the organisation structure defining responsibilities to manage the project.PRINCE was established and launched in 1989 and was based on an earlier model called PROMPT PRINCE took over from PROMT within Government projects. PRINCE2 was published in 1996 and is the trade mark of the Office of Government Commerce (OGC)PRINCE2 Process ModelIn the following section is a brief overview of the process model which has been summarised from the (Managing Successful Project with PRINCE2, Office of Government Commerce, 2002)The PRINCE2 Process model consists of a number of distinctive management processes. Graham (2010) states most people fall into the trap of following this model exactly as a standard approach. It is therefore in the best interest of the project manager not to blindly follow the exact approach stated in the model. Depending on the experience of the project manager and what the project needs elements of the model can be taken and applied to a particular project. Figure 5 shows the different levels of managementDirecting a Project (DP)DP is aimed at the Project Board the board manage and monitor the projects by reports and controls through a number of decision points. Key decision points are initiating the project on the right track, commitment of more resources after checking results and project closure. This process does not cover the day to day activities of the project manager.Starting up a Project (SU)A pre-project process designed to ensure the basic elements are in place. In this process the project team is assembled and a project brief is prepared. This process also brings out the Project Mandate which defines the reason for the project and what the outcome is to be.Initiating a Project (IP)The team decides whether it is feasible for them to proceed with the project and if f easible then a business Case is produced. Other key activities here are setting up project files, encouraging the Project Board to take ownership of the project, assembling the Project Initiation Document (PID), ensuring the investment and time required is considered wisely.Portman (2009) identifies different steps to this process in comparison to (Managing Successful Project with PRINCE2, Office of Government Commerce, 2002). Portman (2009) focuses more on the people aspect as it states that all parties are to be aware of the product that is to be delivered, at what time, and quality aspects. Also management and responsibilities are made clear. Both these texts identify valid points which will enable a project manager to clarify what is to happen at this stage. But raises questions as to why the people aspects are not covered or examples given as it only states a large portion of documentation in the Managing Successful Project with PRINCE2. It gives indication that theory and actu al practise is different.Controlling a Stage (CS)The Project Manager monitors and controls the day to day activities and forms the core role of the Project Manager. Other key activities include authorising, gathering progress information, reviewing stages and reporting.Managing Product Delivery (MP)Ensure planned products are created and delivered by the project. The process makes sure that the work is being done, ensuring that products meet quality criterias set. It makes sure that the work on products allocated to the team is effectively authorised and agreed. Other key activities include assessing work progress and forecasts regularly, obtaining approval for the completed products.Managing Stage Boundaries (SB)This process dictates what should be done towards the end of the stage. The objectives for this process are to assure the Project Board that all deliverables have been completed for the current stage plan, provide information for the Project Board to asses on whether to con tinue with the project or not, provide enough information to approve the current stage and authorise the start of the next stage and record any lessons to be learned for later projects.Closing the Project (CP)Portman (2009) states this process are the activities required to close the project and release the project manager. The project could either be the actual project end or a premature end. Objectives here are to check to see if the PID objectives or aim have been met, confirm acceptance of the product, and make recommendation for future work. Resources are freed up for allocation to other activities and prepare end project report.Planning (PL)Planning is a repeatable process and plays an important role in other processes. A few are mentioned belowPlanning for an Initiation StagePlanning for a ProjectPlanning a StageProducing an Exception PlanAs previously stated PRINCE2 is the de facto standard for the UK Government and the reason for this is the attention to detail, documentati on, business justification and emphasis on dividing the project into manageable and controllable stages (www.prince2.com, 2011). There are many documentation points which enable everyone to know what has happened and how they can improve for the future. Although this methodology may be unsuitable for smaller projects, elements of this methodology can be taken out such as area of control (Bentley, 2005) and implemented into managing a project. However, the question is that if this is such a widely used methodology and is the de facto standard used by the Government, then why are IT projects still failing? And why do IT projects really fail or is it just a widely used perception of IT always failing? These are some of the questions which are going to be explored as the literature review is conducted.Analysing PRINCE2, it is evident why managers and the UK Government use this methodology. This is because it allows the manager to build on experience and the manager to be proactive and n ot reactive (Harris, 2010). It ensures the project process is viable to senior management (Yardley, 2002). By identifying early warning signs of potential problems and allowing proactive measures to be taken to help alleviate them. The advantages and disadvantages are identified in Table 2. The key point to consider is some project managers fail to differentiate that this is a methodology and does not need to be followed exactly to each and every point, process or technique. Project managers become too inflexible and fixed on the idea that they have to follow each and every step which can make the project long and with unnecessary processes (Charvat, 2003). Another key point regarding PRINCE2 in comparison to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) is the PRINCE2 misses the importance of the need of soft skills (Charvat, 2003). PRINCE2 also misses out on areas such as human resources, leadership and management techniques, health and safety. This is different to the PMBOK wh ich focuses on soft skills such as people management.There are numerous benefits for using a structured approach to managing a project. Below are the advantages and disadvantages given by (Office of Government Commerce (OGC), 2002) are2.2.4 Waterfall MethodologyThe waterfall method was developed by Winston W. Royce in the 1970 and is considered to be a traditional approach. This was one of the first formal approaches for information system analysis and design as stated by (Johns, 2002 Carkenord, 2009). The method is a process followed in a sequence where a task is completed before moving on to the next in a sequential manner.Figure 6 shows the waterfall methodology, (Rainardi, 2007) illustrates the approach of the waterfall when one task is completed after another.The advantages and disadvantages to the waterfall methodology according to Charvat (2003) are illustrated in Table 3Although this is for a software development or information system methodology, the same approach can be ap plied to a project in completing one section and then moving on to the other. The waterfall however does not always reflect on how a project is undertaken and is rarely done in such a sequential manner. However as (Charvat, 2003) identifies, it does produce a phase by phase checkpoint. This will allow the project to stay on the right track in meeting its objectives.2.2.5 Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM)SSADM is a structured approach into the analysis and design of developing an