Friday, December 27, 2019

Pop art was a direct response to the commercial and...

Pop art was a direct response to the commercial and consumer society of modern time†. Explain why this might be true. Pop art was an art formed by artist expressing their views. â€Å"Pop art was a direct response to the commercial and consumer society of modern time†. Explain why this might be true. Pop art was an art formed by artist expressing their views on modern day society. Pop art originally emerged from England in the fifties; although it was not exploited in England, in fact during the fifties it wasn’t very well implemented. In the sixties, in New York, pop art began to have a high prospective. Many artists soon realized that pop art could be expressed in a variety of forms, this soon related to its commercial use.†¦show more content†¦In 1961 Roy Lichtenstein made use of the â€Å"Ben-Day dots†. This was the first time an artist had used this device. Lichtenstein exploited this and turned it into a signature for himself on his paintings of cartoon characters. Many Pop artists have attempted to and inspired an impersonal approach in to work trying not to offend any community. Although in many circumstances pop artist did impose their own views in their work, Pop artist took this opportunity to criticize society. Quadrant 1982: The piece of art work on the left which Andy Warhol had created criticized the way society is fixated on money. Warhol was an idealist. He had managed to survive W.W.II., he realized the important values of life. The Quadrant symbolized how society had always been. It shows the $ symbol in four different colors. This translated to people as different times but the same agenda, money. The â€Å"Ben-Day dots† led the way for commercial use of pop art. Lichtenstein used this to his advantage and exploited it. The â€Å"Ben-Day dots† was an efficient use in advertising. This device allowed unique paintings and large scale posters to be created. The more striking pop art was created by Roy Lichtenstein. Lichtenstein manipulated the way we see day to day objects and cartoon drawings. Reverie 1965: Roy Lichtenstein always enjoyed illustrating and implementing carton drawings into his work. He often read comic magazines to be inspired forShow MoreRelatedFrom The Different Pairs Of Artists That Were Given To1581 Words   |  7 Pagesand diverse works of art. Both, Andy Warhol and El Anatsui are prominent artists in their own fields and have made many more renowned pieces. The two artists, Warhol and Anatsui, have different techniques of expressing art, but can in some ways be comparable. Andy Warhol was a popular American Pop artist who had a prosperous career and was known for producing consumer culture pieces. Warhol was really drawn to advertising, popular culture and marketing in a world that was really starting up inRead MoreThe Role Of Television Advertising On Lifestyle And Purchase Behavior Of Youth Of Delhi / Ncr Essay3509 Words   |  15 Pagesadvertising in affecting lifestyle and purchase behavior of youth of Delhi / NCR. Abstract: Television is an integral part of our life and the advertisements on it play vital role in changing behavior of consumer through different techniques and patters used in it to persuade the consumers. The youth spent more time in watching television and they are deployed by the ads and satisfied too with the promise the advertisements are making with them. In this study the researcher aims to judge the roleRead MoreThe Digital Age in Music: How Advancements in Technology Are Re-Shaping the Industry3352 Words   |  14 Pageskeep up with for artist, producer, and consumer alike. New editions of textbooks in Music Business classes are issued each year, and changes are made in the industry before the semester is even over. Because of this, it is vital for the industry to not only not only be aware of what is currently going happening, but also be able to foresee the direction that the music business is heading in. In this aspect, it seems that we are at a turning point where consumer s and artists are taking advantage ofRead More Tracing the Rap/Hip-Hop Dichotomy in Popular and Underground Music3130 Words   |  13 Pagessame rate as the number of rap albums climbing the charts. And the growing evidence that, apparently, in order to achieve commercial success, each rap album must be more negative and offensive than the last does not help to address these criticisms. Unfortunately, the critics miss most of the rarely-seen other side of the genre: Hip-hop, rap music that is true the art forms roots of black empowerment and social progress. But black empowerment and social progress dont sell nearly asRead MoreAnalysis of the Music Industry30024 Words   |  121 Pagesparticular characteristics (Wikipedia), but it is undeniably a `vibrant artform (Arts Council England) and one which touches more people, in more ways, than any other art form. In commercial terms, music certainly generates a higher market value than the other arts, although a comprehensive market size for music in all its manifestations is impossible to calculate. Key Note has put a value of  £3.03bn on consumer spending on music in 2005, derived from three sectors: recorded music (which accountsRead MoreMaking Sense of Advertisements Daniel Pope8330 Words   |  34 Pagesbusiness history and on the history of American radicalism. He is the author of The Making of Modern Advertising (1983) and editor of American Radicalism (2001); he has written many articles on the history of American advertising, marketing, and consumer culture, and on the history of nuclear power and anti-nuclear activism. Introduction Over a century ago, Harper’s Weekly commented that advertisements were â€Å"a true mirror of life, a sort of fossil history from which the future chronicler, if allRead MoreInfluence Of International Culture On The Fashion Industry7108 Words à ‚  |  29 PagesInfluence of International Culture on the Fashion Industry The author’s curiosity towards the Fashion industry, and all the different sub sectors in and amongst it, was ignited at an adolescent age through the phenomenal approbation they felt for the Walt Disney motion pictures and viewing for the first time all the heroes, protagonists and villains that were featured on the animated screens wearing fabulous, flamboyant costumes and garments, that projected high fashion, couture in the most overRead MoreBoroplus Prickly Heat Powder9203 Words   |  37 PagesAyurvedic medicine and cosmetic manufacturing unit in Kolkata in 1974. It was an extremely bold step in the early seventies when the Indian FMCG market was still dominated by multinationals. Several such companies headquartered in Kolkata were considering shifting out of West Bengal due to labor unrest and political problems. In 1978, Himani Ltd (incorporated as a Private Limited Company in 1949) had become sick unit and was up for sale. Himani, almost a 100 year old company with good brand equityRead MoreThe Effects of Music in Advertising6197 Words   |  25 Pagesmarriage of commerce and art {Billboard, 2003), the trend continues. In the past five years advertisers have been unrelenting in their appropriation of popular music to get the attention of youth, and there s no sign of the trend abating (Shea, 2004, p. 16). Advertisers use popular music in various ways to involve, engage, and ultimately persuade the potential consumer to purchase their product or service. Whether as foreground or background, music is integrated into commercials in one of several waysRead MoreMarketing Planning Process9555 Words   |  39 Pagescredibility Matrix 4. Appendix 4 : Implementation / Schedule of activities 5. Evaluation Report 6. References 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Zimbabwe Newspapers (1980) Ltd is the oldest newspaper publisher and commercial printer in Zimbabwe, as well as being easily the largest publisher of newspapers, having dominated the industry for almost 120 years. The company is the proprietor of Zimbabwe’s leading daily newspapers, The Herald and the H-Metro and owns two

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Personality Paper Essay - 674 Words

No two people are alike, and no two personalities are alike. A personality is made up of different characteristics, which help to define a person. Per the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator everyone has a four-letter personality type with 16 different personality combinations. These personality types affect everyone’s personal, social and work life. My four-letter personality type is ISFJ (introvert, sensing, feeling and judgment). There are many different personality types. The four dimensions of personality are: extravert or introvert; sensing or intuitive; thinking or feeling; judging or perceptive. Extroverts are energized by social interactions, like to be the center of attention and talkative. The opposite of extrovert is introvert.†¦show more content†¦Each type has unique gifts and talents that can be used in different occupations. ISFJ personalities are practical and motivated to provide for others in the careers that they choose. The ideal work environment for this personality type is to work alone on projects, work with known facts, use standard procedures, work in a friendly and relaxed environment. Careers that are suggested for someone with the ISFJ personality are interior decorators, nurses, administrators, managers, child care professionals, counselors, paralegals, religious workers, shopkeepers and office managers. Personally, I want to work in the Biotechnology field developing cures for sick children and adults. I would love to find the cure for cancer and lyme disease. If I can make a difference in someone’s life I will then be satisfied with what I do for a living. In relationships I tend to have a lot of emotions and intense feelings. I have a hard time trying to express these feelings to my spouse and tend to hold them in. When it comes to conflict I prefer to sweep things under the rug and pretend that they didn’t happen. I mostly do this to avoid more conflict with my spouse. This is a problem that most people wi th the ISFJ personality face. We do not express our feelings like we should until we are pushed to a limit and we explode in anger and say things that we should not say. From the information about personality traits, career choices, and relationships that I haveShow MoreRelatedGun Control Argument Essay757 Words   |  4 Pagesevery option that is available to me. This made it harder than it should have been to pick topics for my multiple essays. Choosing a topic determines the content of an entire essay. It is a very important aspect of writing. My indecision caused me to get behind on every essay that my english teacher assigned. As the class progressed I became better at choosing a topic. In my argument essay I chose gun control as my topic. Gun control refers to the debate on whether or not there should be laws againstRead MorePersonality As Predictor, Personality, And General Knowledge1305 Words   |  6 PagesPersonality as Predictor According to Kluemper, Bing, and McLarty (2014), a person’s reputation is based on their past experiences. Also, managers use a person’s past performance to predict the person’s future performance. This essay provides a definition of a measure and discusses how leaders measure the personality trait of employees to explain their job performance. Also, how managers use organizational past performance to predict future performance. Also, the paper describes how leaders use employeesRead MoreMy Writing Experience1159 Words   |  5 Pagesour writing. I’ve always been taught writing, but it’s not so often that I look back on our old essays or writing projects. If I look back, I can see how my writings improved, what and where my writing has changed and even find what hasn’t really changed. Of course over the years, my writing style has been modified and adjusted as I learned new things with different teachers. I’ve look back at old essays before, but now it’s time that I look back and really read through to see the history of my writingRead MoreThe Importance Of Writing858 Words   |  4 Pages During primary school, I always thought that writing was dull. Just a piece of paper with ink that spells out words. Meaningless. Boring. Hollow. Of course I knew that people wrote to entertain or record history but writing had no personality to me. I hated when teachers would ask, â€Å"Me what did the paper make me feel?† or â€Å"What emotions did the paper evoke?†. I would reply with lies or something related to the paper to look like I actually cared. My writing during primary school was very dull atRead MoreDelving into the Personality of Shakespeare in â€Å"What Was He Really Like? by Stanley Wells653 Words   |  3 Pagesthere are only so many ways humans can rewrite the same facts about the same person. Contrary to most papers about Shakespeare, the essay titled â€Å"What Was He Really Like?†, written by Stanley Wells, focuses internally on who Shakespeare was as an ordinary person. Instead of discussing when Shakespeare got married or explaining his life in relation to his works, Wells delves into the personality of the famous playwright. Stanley Wells encourages the reader of â€Å"What Was He Really Like?† to look atRead MoreStudent Survival Guide for Distance Learning Education1122 Words   |  5 Pagesstudents scramble to put anything together to turn in for an assignment. Some students cheat. Any cheating by any student should not be tolerated. Cheating can be anything from copying another studentâ₠¬â„¢s test answers to copying another author’s report or essay. This is called Plagiarism. This form of cheating is prevalent in an online learning environment. Not only could the student possibly fail his or her class, but he or she could also be expelled from their school. If it is necessary to use commentsRead MoreI Am From Saudi Arabia And My Native Language Essay1524 Words   |  7 Pagesstudy English in an American school learn more much grammar and writing skills than Americans themselves. It is just the fact in every language. For example, I am from Saudi Arabia and my native language is Arabic: if I was asked to write a formal essay in Arabic I would not be able to write it. The reason that I don’t have the eagerness because I feel it is my first language and I don’t need to learn about my language’s grammar or writing skills. This applies to many native speakers. However, I amRead MoreColl1273 Words   |  6 Pages Communicating and Collaborating Effectively This paper focuses on effective communication and collaboration methods for people with Visual, Kinesthetic, and Auditory learning styles and with NF, SF, and ST personality types from the Myers-Briggs model. Learning Styles Kinesthetic learners are those who learn through experiencing/doing things that help them learn better. We do better when we include hands-on communication and collaboration activities, such as building models, drawing diagramsRead MoreComparison and Contrast1409 Words   |  6 Pagesthinking. Sometimes you use comparison and contrast to talk about sth new, by telling your readers how a thing is similar to or different from sth they know, you can help them understand the new thing e.g. writing a one paragraph paper and writing multi paragraph essays . 2) Besides explaining sth new, comparison and contrast also appear frequently in decision making, because A and B share some characteristics but differ in others, one is better. E.g. you compare and contrast brands when you shopRead More stem cell ethics Essay1706 Words   |  7 Pagesfor a research paper, the book to consult is MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th edition). Copies of these books are on the reference shelves in the Writing Lab (226 Heavilon Hall) and in the HSSE Library; it is also widely available in bookstores, libraries, and at the MLA web site. Our additional resources section also has links to other helpful books and resources on using MLA style. Included here is a brief summary of MLA style for the research paper. Basic Paper Format Making

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

International Marketing of E-Bike Brands †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the International Marketing of E-Bike Brands. Answer: Introduction This report compares and contrasts two E-Bikes brands based on their effectivemarketing segmentation and product positioning techniques in the international market. International market is the process of doing business across the national borders by the companies. In the global marketing, it is crucial to understand how the products are perceived by the customers in the new market (Laker, 2017). For the discussion, Australian E-Bike brand Dillenger and German E-Bike brand Bosch is selected. Both the companies have expanded their businesses in the overseas market. Key objective of the report is to develop the segmentation and positioning responses based on the marketing fit design process for these two brands of E-Bikes. The comparison in the report will be done based on market opportunity analysis for both the companies in the different countries including market segmentation and market diversification. Along with this, positioning and market fit requirements i.e. target customers, m arketing mix and consumption and buying patterns will be considered. At last, segmentation requirements will also be considered for both the companies. The brief description of both e-bike brands is as follows: Dillenger Pty Ltd Dillenger Pty Ltd started its operations in 2007 as a company in Queensland, Australia. With the quickly developed production models, company has sustainable growth in the Australian market. New technologies in the electric bikes and intelligent motor controllers are the reason of huge improvements in the quality and reliability of electric bikes. Due to the reduction in the cost of electric bike components, the sales of e-bikes have enhanced. The market of Dillenger has improved in the last 3 years and its products are now sold in all over the world (Dillenger Pty Ltd, 2017). Bosch E-Bikes Systems Famous e-bike company Bosch started its operations in 1951 in Germany and now it has a strong presence in the market. In current time, company has over 70 leading bike brands in all over the world. Company provides high quality, powerful and reliability drive units along with durable batteries that make e-bike successful. Bosch E-Bikes Systems is working on the future of mobility and economic and ecologic sustainability. The company has around 10,108 associates and it has strong service network to ensure widespread availability of both products as well as services (Bosch, 2018). Comparison Australian E-Bike brand Dillenger is famous company among the Australian consumers and the company has expanded the business in the UK market. On the other hand, German E-Bike brand Bosch has expanded its business in the US market. There are some factors that can be analyzed while comparing these two E-Bike brands. Market opportunity analysis Dillenger Australian E-Bike brand Dillenger has expanded its business in the UK market. There are various market opportunities in the country for the growth and development of E-Bike business. The UK Electronic bike market is one of the developing markets for the overseas companies. The total e-bike market in UK is estimated to be worth 1.5 billion. The market is growing by around 5% per year that is beneficial for the company Dillenger. Along with this, the sale of new e-bikes is estimated to be 800 million and this data reveals that the Dillenger will have hike in the sales in UK market. Dillenger has opportunities to grow in the market as the UK bike market is highly fragmented (Peace, 2017). There are various market growth opportunities in the e-bike market for the overseas companies: Despite of increase in the popularity of sports vehicles, large number of e-bikes are sold in the country, The wellbeing and health benefits are associated with the electronic bikes, The government infrastructure investment is high in various cities of UK, Rapidly growing electric bike segment in the UK market that makes cycling more easy to both older generation as well as commuter, and Existing consumers are spending more amounts on using electronic bikes (Oortwijn, 2016) Bosch e-bike systems On the other hand, German E-Bike brand Bosch has expanded the business in US market due to some market and business opportunities available in the market. The sale of e-bikes is expected to be doubled in US market. By the expansion in the US market, Bosch has become leader in the e-bike market. Bosch e-bike systems provide high quality drive system in the e-bikes (MacArthur, Dill Person, 2013). In the US market, the electric bikes are growing in popularity. The continuous trend is enhancing number of electric bikes models and styles. By the growing trend, Bosch e-bike system is able to set success in the growing market. There are around 200 million electric bikes ridden today and it is predicted that industry will grow to 2 billion by 2050 (Willem, 2017). Market segmentation Market Segmentation Dillenger Bosch Demographical, geographical, and psycho-graphical segmentation, Middle income families, and higher income groups segmentation Psychographic, Demographic and geographic segmentation, Business to business segmentation, Business to consumer segmentation Market diversification In the UK market, Dillenger is able to maintain its strong position by diversifying its product and services. For the Dillenger diversification is not as risky as it has launched variety of e-bikes in the market with its own brand. The products of Dillenger have created the sense of demand in the UK market o n the launch of new products (Langkos, 2014). In order to position itself in the US market, Bosch e-bike systems have adopted market differentiation strategy. Bosch in the UK market diversifies into new products and markets including the global group and trailer sector. Along with this, Bosch has adopted niche strategy, mission marketing strategy, diversified its marketing mix and provides cheap products as compared to its rivals. The company has new and diversified range of e-bikes. Positioning and market fit requirements Target customers In UK market, target market selected by Dillenger is based on the demographical, geographical, and psycho-graphical segmentation. The target customers are rural households deprived of basic electricity, middle income families, and higher income groups who are conscious for the fitness and contributor to green energy. On the other hand, target customers by Bosch in UK market are based on various factors including income, age, region, attitude, behavior and consumption patterns etc. Bosch basically uses a mix of psychographic, demographic, and geographic segmentation strategies. Company uses differentiating targeting strategy and targets the customers from automobile companies from the diversified strategies, professionals and executives and upper-class social group (Ferrell Hartline, 2011). Marketing mix Marketing Mix Dillenger Bosch Product Electric cars, electric bikes, spares like electric bike kit spares, accessories i.e. safety, storage and tools Mobility, industry and trade services, software solutions and various vehicles Price Competitive pricing strategy in UK market, special financing options (Keegan, 2002). Different pricing strategy of different product category, competitive pricing strategy is followed Place Various stores and logistics centers i.e. UK warehouse, UK dispatch, spares inventory and returns centre Distribution form independent Bosch dealers and retailers in US, Stores and Bosch offices available in the country Promotion Personal selling, Advertising on various media i.e. television, newspaper and magazines, publicity by road show and free trails for the new customers and credit and finance schemes Direct approach- Direct interaction with regular trade channels, Media Branding- Local paper, Regional TV channels, automobile and trade magazines, Direct market promotion- Auto shows, Rally events, sponsor of local events (Fahy Jobber, 2012) Consumption and purchasing patterns The buying or purchasing behavior of the consumers for e-bikes in UK and US market are as follows: Buying patterns Dillenger (UK market) Bosch (US market) Satisfied with the mileage of electric bikes, Satisfied with the sales after services, Buy e-bikes due to its speed, Satisfied with the speed, power, battery life and appearance of e-bikes (Kazmi, 2012) Positive attitude towards e-bikes, Buy e-bikes to enhance cycling frequency, Use e-bikes to reduce travel time, Buy e-bikes to replace the cas Segmentation requirements Demographic variables In the demographic factors, Dillenger focuses on the age, income and occupation of the customers. In the income factor, company focuses on the high income level customers who are also contributing to the environmental sustainability. The key segmented group for the e-bikes are 18 years and above. All kinds of people are targeted i.e. business people, students, servants etc (Cateora, 2008). On the other hand, Company Bosch focuses on the young professionals and students for the sale of e-bikes. Students are targeted who are living far away from the college campus and using public transport. Company basically focuses on those students who do not live with their parents. Along with this, company is focusing on young professionals who travel daily for their work by the public transport. Lifestyle segmentation In the UK market, Dillenger targets the consumers based on the lifestyle segmentation. The company is targeting upper middle class people with stylish design and looks along with the affordable prices. Further, company also targets the corporate executives who prefer to travel by the public transports to reach their work station. Bosch has targeted family size in the market and in this segment, people of high class, and high income group are focused by the company. The e-bikes are helpful in the contribution for the sustainability of the environment. Conclusion From the above analysis, it is observed that both the companies are doing well in the global market. It is analyzed that companies have different marketing and positioning strategies while operating in the overseas market. The customers in UK and US market have different preferences and requirements and it is important for the companies to understand those requirements so that their requirements can be fulfilled by the products and services. Dillenger and Bosch, both the companies are market leader in terms of fulfilling market fit requirements for e-bikes. With the increased air pollution in the environment and scarcity of fuels electric bikes, there is the high demand of electric bikes among the customers and both e-bike brands are successful in meeting the requirements of the customers in different countries. References Bosch, (2018). Everything about the eBike. Retrieved on 3rd February 2018 from https://www.bosch-ebike.com/en/experience-ebike/experience-ebike/ Cateora, P.R. (2008). International Marketing (13th). NY: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Dillenger Pty Ltd. (2017). Dillenger Electric Bikes. Retrieved on 3rd February 2018 from https://dillengerelectricbikes.com.au/about-dillenger/ Fahy, J. Jobber, D., (2012). Foundations of Marketing. (4th). Maidenhead: McCGrawHill Ferrell, O. Hartline, M., (2011). Marketing management strategies. New York: South-Western. Higher Education. Kazmi, S. Q., (2012). Consumer Perception and Buying Decisions: International Journal of Advancements in Research Technology. Volume 1(6) Keegan, (2002). Global Marketing Management. IND: Pearson Education India Laker, L. (2017). Rise of the ebike: how going electric could revolutionise your ride. Retrieved on 3rd February 2018 from https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/sep/16/rise-of-the-ebike-how-going-electric-could-revolutionise-your-ride Langkos, S. (2014). Marketing Plan with product diversification strategy. Retrieved on 3rd February 2018 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265466588_Marketing_Plan_with_product_diversification_strategy_Case_study_of_Media_Strom_SA_Athenian_Bedmatress_Company MacArthur, J., Dill, J., Person, M., (2013). E-Bikes in the North America: Results from an online survey. Retrieved on 3rd February 2018 from https://docs.trb.org/prp/14-4885.pdf Oortwijn, J., (2016). Growth of UK E-Bike Market Estimated at 20%. Retrieved on 3rd February 2018 from https://www.bike-eu.com/sales-trends/nieuws/2016/11/growth-of-uk-e-bike-market-estimated-at-20-10128028 Peace, R., (2017). Brexit Looms Over UK Market Where E-Bikes Boom. Retrieved on 3rd February 2018 from https://www.bike-eu.com/sales-trends/nieuws/2017/7/brexit-looms-over-uk-market-where-e-bikes-boom-10130459 Willem, J. (2017). USA E-Bike Market Doubles in Units and Value. Retrieved on 3rd February 2018 from https://www.bike-eu.com/sales-trends/nieuws/2017/9/usa-e-bike-market-doubles-in-units-and-value-10131284

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Reflection Essay Essays (582 words) - Time, World History

Reflection Essay There are so many thing that i learned about this school year, however, the most impactful thing i learned about this school year was the Revolutionary War. The Revolutionary war was one of the most important events in shaping the future of not only the United States of America, but the entire modern world. Who knows how different the world would have been if the there was no America, no country to keep the world in balance and try to keep peace, no place where people can pursue religious, political, and financial freedom. A place where people from different cultures can hold government offices and be invited into the population as if they were Americans. Who knows what it would have been like but we should be thankful for what it is now. The United States of America was created from the hard working farmers and homeowners that were sick and tired of taking crap from Great Britain. The Revolutionary War may have happened from 1775 to 1783, however the tension of the war started decades before when Britain started heavily taxing the colonies on everything from tea to bread. One of the major events that greatly increased tensions in the colonies was the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act was passed on March 22nd of 1765, this act was imposed of all American colonies and required them to pay taxes for all the paper being used, including everything from court documents to playing cards. The colonies took this as a drastic economic setback and this caused them to start assembling and plotting ways to revolt against the mother country. The most famous display of the colonies anger toward Great Britain was the Boston Tea Party, in which, farmers, business owners, and local revolutionaries came together dressed in the attire of native americans, and overthrew multiple ships containing 342 chests of tea into the water in 1773. The Boston Tea Party was also a statement mad e by the colonies following the Boston Massacre which happened 3 years prior on March 5th of 1770. At this point, Britain took the act as the beginning of a revolution and sent multitudes of soldiers called "Redcoats" to the Americas to join the pre stationed soldiers to intimidate and eradicate any and all who opposed King George the Third. Around 1774 parliament passed what the Patriots dubbed the Intolerable Acts. These acts were a series of punitive laws given to the revolting colonies after the Boston Tea Party, in Britain these acts were referred to as the Coercive Acts. Later in the year on September 5th of 1774 the First Continental Congress was formed by delegates from 12 colonies to react to the Intolerable Acts. The next year on April 18th of 1775 the British governor of Massachusetts ordered the seizure of colonial military storages at Concord, British intentions were discovered and prevented by militiamen on April 19th. On July 4th of 1776, the Second Continental Congress created the Declaration of Independence which proclaimed the 13 colonies as independent from Great Britain, causing Britain to proclaim war on the colonies. The Declaration was mainly drafted by congressman Thomas Jefferson. Following the ratification the Declaration of Independence there were numerous battles including the Battles of Saratoga and the Surrender of Yorktown. The war formally ended with the Treaty of Paris signing on September 3rd of 1783, with Great Britain accepting defeat and acknowledging the colonies freedom.